Publications

Sharing our findings with academia & industry is an extremely important part of what we do - it is the best way to advance knowledge and good practice

Hydrogen Hazards

Ignition of flammable atmospheres by mechanical stimuli. HazardEx. January 2016. Ingram, J.

Ignition of flammable hydrogen in air (and other H2/N2/O2mixtures) by mechanical stimuli. Part 3: Ignition under conditions of low sliding velocity (<0.8 m/s). International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. August 2015 2015. 40(31), 9847–9853. Averill AF, Ingram JM, Battersby P, Holborn PG

Dispersion of hydrogen releases from a liquid surface and surface bursting behaviour. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. April 2015. 40(14), 4898–4913. Ingram JM, Averill AF, Battersby P, Holborn PG

Ignition of flammable hydrogen/air mixtures by mechanical stimuli. Part 2: Ignition under conditions of rust and surface pyrophoric material contamination. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. April 2015. 40(12), 4392–4400. Ingram JM, Averill AF, Battersby P, Holborn PG

Ignition of flammable hydrogen/air mixtures by mechanical stimuli. Part 1: Ignition with clean metal surfaces sliding under high load conditions. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. October 2014. 39(32), 18472–18479. Ingram JM, Averill AF, Battersby P, Holborn PG

Ignition of hydrogen/air mixtures by glancing mechanical impact. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. December 2014. 39(35), 20404–20410. Averill AF, Ingram JM, Battersby P, Holborn PG, Nolan PF

Electrostatic ignition of sensitive flammable mixtures: is charge generation due to bubble bursting a credible hazard? Process Safety and Environmental Protection.In Press, Accepted Proof. Available online 14 February 2014. Ingram JM, Averill AF, Battersby P, Holborn PG, Nolan PF.

A fundamental study of the generation of interfacial temperatures with metal surfaces and coatings under conditions of sliding friction and mechanical impact. Part 2: experimental determination of surface temperature. Advance article.  To appear in Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, March 2014. Averill AF, Ingram JM, Battersby P, Holborn PG, Nolan PF.

A fundamental study of the generation of interfacial temperatures with metal surfaces and coatings under conditions of sliding friction and mechanical impact. Part 1: thermal analysis and theoretical evaluation of surface temperature. Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, September 2013, 91(5), 269-274. Averill AF, Ingram JM, Battersby P, Holborn PG, Nolan PF.

Modelling the mitigation of hydrogen deflagrations in a vented cylindrical rig with water fog and nitrogen dilution. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 19 March 2013, 38(8), 3471-3487. Holborn PG, Battersby P, Ingram JM, Averill AF, Nolan PF.

The mitigation of hydrogen explosions using water fog, nitrogen dilution and chemical additives. In: 5th International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, September 9-11, 201, Brussels, Belgium. Battersby P, Holborn PG, Ingram JM, Averill AF Nolan PF.

Ignition of flammable hydrogen/air mixtures by controlled glancing impacts in nuclear waste decommissioning. In: 5th International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, September 9-11, 201, Brussels, Belgium. Averill AF, Ingram JM, Battersby P, Holborn PG, Nolan PF.

Hydrogen bubble dispersion and surface bursting behaviour. In: 5th International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, September 9-11, 201, Brussels, Belgium. Ingram JM, Averill AF, Battersby P, Holborn PG, Nolan PF.

Estimating the Effect of Water Fog and Nitrogen Dilution upon the Burning Velocity of Hydrogen Deflagrations from Experimental Test Data, Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, V38, I16, 30 May 2013, Pages 6882–6895, P.G. Holborn, P.N. Battersby, J.M. Ingram, A.F. Averill, P.F. Nolan.

Modelling the effect of water fog on the upper flammability limit of hydrogen–oxygen–nitrogen mixtures , Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, V38, I16, 30 May 2013, Pages 6896–6903, Holborn, P. G., Battersby, P., Ingram, J. M., Averill, A. F., Nolan, P. F.

Suppression of hydrogen oxygen-nitrogen explosions by fine water mist containing sodium hydroxide additive, Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, In Press, Accepted Manuscript , available online 13 May 2013, Ingram J.M., Averill A.F., Battersby P.N., Holborn P.G., Nolan P.F.

Modelling the Mitigation of Hydrogen Deflagrations in a Nuclear Waste Silo Ullage by Depleting the Oxygen Concentration with Nitrogen, Nuc. Eng. Des., V 263 October 2013, Pages 97–101, P.G. Holborn, P.N. Battersby, J.M. Ingram, A.F. Averill, P.F. Nolan.

Suppression of hydrogen–oxygen–nitrogen explosions by fine water mist: Part 1. Burning velocity, Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, V37, I24, December 2012, Pages 19250-19257, J.M. Ingram, A.F. Averill, P.N. Battersby, P.G. Holborn, P.F. Nolan

Suppression of hydrogen–oxygen–nitrogen explosions by fine water mist: Part 2. Mitigation of vented deflagrations , Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, V37, I24, December 2012, Pages 19258-1926, P.N. Battersby, A.F. Averill, J.M. Ingram, P.G. Holborn, P.F. Nolan

Modelling the Mitigation of a Hydrogen Deflagration in a Nuclear Waste Silo Ullage with Water Fog , Process Safety and Environmental Protection, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 14 November 2012, Paul G. Holborn, Paul N. Battersby, James M. Ingram, Anthony F. Averill, Phillip F. Nolan

Modelling the mitigation of lean hydrogen deflagrations in a vented cylindrical rig with water fog, Int. J. of Hydrogen Energy, V37, I20 , October 2012, Pages 15406-15422, P.G. Holborn, P. Battersby, J.M. Ingram, A.F. Averill, P.F. Nolan

Jones, S., Averill, A.F., Ingram, J.M., Holborn, P.G., Battersby, P., Nolan, P.F., Kempsell, I.D. and Wakem, M.J. Mitigation of hydrogen-air explosion mixtures. IChemE Hazards XIX, Manchester 27 th-30 th March 2006.

Jones, S., Averill, A.F., Ingram, J.M., Holborn, P.G., Battersby, P., Nolan, P.F., Kempsell, I.D. and Wakem, M.J. Impact ignition of hydrogen-air mixtures. IChemE Hazards XIX, Manchester 27 th-30 th March 2006.

I.D. Kempsell, M.J. Wakem, M.P. Fairclough, J.M. Ingram; Hydrogen explosion – An example of hazard avoidance and control, Hazards XVI, IChemE Symposium Series No. 148, pp 523-539, 2001

Aeronautical Engineering Fire Safety

Investigations into incidents involving the kindling chain of materials in high-pressure oxygen atmospheres. PhD thesis. London South Bank University. UK. November 2015. Benson, CM (2015).

BCGA technical report 3: Substances for the cleaning of oxygen system components. Averill, T, Ingram, J, Nolan, PF.

BS 5N100-7 (2002). Aircraft Oxygen Systems and equipment. Guide to cleaning, labeling and packaging. Substantive authors Averill, T, Ingram, J.

Vapour Dispersion in Ventilated Air

Prediction of turbulent transport using variable effective diffusivity of VOC vapour in indoor air (2012). Hilborne V., Nolan P.F., Averill A.F.,RSC Proceedings of the 2011 International Network of Environmental Forensics Annual Conference, Robert D Morrison (Editor), Gwen O'Sullivan (Editor), Cambridge : RSC Publishing.

Fire Safety and Investigation

Holborn, P.G., Nolan, P.F. and Golt, J. Body of Evidence. Fire Prevention and Fire Engineers Journal, pp 33-36, October 2004.

Holborn, P.G., Nolan, P.F. and Golt, J. An analysis of fire sizes, fire growth rates and times between events using data from fire investigations. Fire Safety Journal, 39, 481-524, 2004.

Holborn, P.G., Nolan, P.F. and Golt, J. An analysis of fatal unintentional dwelling fires investigated by London Fire Brigade between 1996 and 2000. Fire Safety Journal, 38, 1-42, 2003.

Holborn, P.G., Nolan, P.F., Golt, J. and Townsend, N. Fires in workplace premises: risk data. Fire Safety Journal, 37, 303-327, 2002.

Holborn, P.G., Nolan, P.F., Golt, J. and Townsend, N. Fires in workplace premises: probability data. Fire Safety, Technology & Management, 7, 24-27, 2002.

Charters, D., McGrail, D., Fajemirokun, Y.W., Townsend, N. and Holborn, P. Preliminary analysis of the number of occupants, fire growth, detection times and pre-movement times for probabilistic risk assessment. The 7 th International Symposium of Fire Safety Science, 16 th-21 st June 2002, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Holborn, P.G. The Real Fire Library – Analysis of Fatal Fires 1996-2000. London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority, November 2001.

Runaway Chemical Reactions

Battersby, P.N. Ph.D Chemical Engineering, London South Bank University, 2004, “Thermal Explosions in Evaporators” (BNFL).

Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)

Characterisation of two industrial deluge systems designed for the protection of large horizontal, cylindrical LPG vessels , Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 17, Issue 2, March 2004, Pages 141-150, G.F Davies, P.F Nolan

Active Fire Protection Systems

Experimental investigation of the parameters affecting the water coverage of a pressure vessel protected by a deluge system , Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 17, Issue 2, March 2004, Pages 127-139, G.F Davies, P.F Nolan

Development of a model to predict the effectiveness of existing water deluge systems and to optimise new systems , Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Volume 17, Issue 2, March 2004, Pages 159-168, G.F Davies, P.F Nolan

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