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Hi Martin, Thanks for your comprehensive web site on water. I suppose several graduate courses wouldn't be able to teach everything about water.

About homeopathy, it is very interesting that the effects grow stronger with dilution. The theory of dissolved silicates and other glassware interactions could be useful, although my only real experience with homeopathy is with the ultra-purified de-ionized water (DIW) used in semiconductor cleanrooms. Although one would think DIW is the safest water on Earth to drink, such is not the case. Bacteria blooms are common in cleanrooms. Even if you drink DIW straight from the filtration system, you can get a bacteria bloom in your stomach that will make you sick. I heard of a cleanroom worker who had an ulcer and took to drinking the DIW. It wasn't long before he was coughing up blood.

This ability of DIW to cause bacteria blooms matches the theory of homeopathy practitioners. City water chlorine is diluted to the point that it causes the opposite biological effect to occur. Instead of inhibiting bacterial growth, it causes the DIW to accelerate it. The plumbing for DIW is not glass. It's either stainless steel or plastic tubing such as HDPE or PP. I don't know what all materials are in the filters themselves, but probably not glass.

If there is information storage in the water, it doesn't necessarily break the second law of thermodynamics. It just means the boundaries of the system are misunderstood. When an illusionist pulls a rabbit out of a hat, it's not magic. There's a logical place that rabbit came from.
It's a matter of working out how nature does its David Copperfield act.

Brad Eckert, brad@chiscan.com

Tues September 13 2016 18:54


I greatly appreciate your article titled as above,however to cement the equations may you give me one or two practically worked examples. For example - If i place a beaker of say 100ml of water in a microwave oven for a given time,can I calculate say rate of temperature rise,power consumed,electric field  etc

kind regards Martin Mudeke <mmudeke@zedc.co.zw>

Thu May 5 2016 06:42


Hello, I'm very interested in a list of technical references concerning the effects of magnetic fluxes on water. I am researching the possible use of magnetic fields to enhance water in fuel emulsion stability without the use of surfactants.

Thanks for your consideration.

My best regards, Paul Delozier <nucexprt@shentel.net>

Sat August 1 2015 12:54


Wonderful site! I have referenced it many times and recommended it to colleagues. The paper the surface charge of water was very helpful.

Joseph McElroy, Senior Electrical Engineer, Accio Energy, Inc.

Mon January 05 2015 16:33


Dear Martin, Thank you for your aqueous expositions, they cluster with my position General Faith.
Love to you, Andrew Dettman, ajdettman.com

Sat November 15 2014 10:44


Dear Professor Chaplin, Searching the web for density information for water isotopologues (to correct for buoyancy when weighing and mixing them) I found your website (or rather your library of websites) on water. This is very, very impressive! My compliments, and my sincere thanks. I found what I needed, including the proper references, and I will "spread the news" about your water website further.

Thanks again! Prof.dr. Harro A.J. Meijer, Centre for Isotope Research (CIO), Univeristy of Groningen
< http://www.rug.nl/fmns-research/cio/index >

Wed September 24 2014 08:32


Dear Professor Chaplin, Thank you very much  for so generously sharing your knowledge through your internet site!

I came across to it while I was searching some material on maximum and minimum water content that a living cell can withstand without dying. I would be interested in knowing about some experiment or processes in which a cell is kept without nutrients while it dehydrates or over-hydrates progressively, e.g., because it is in contact with an hypertonic or hypotonic solution. I wonder if there are limit values of intracellular water content beyond which the cell cannot survive.

I hope you do not mind if I take the liberty to address this issue here, and I hope you are so benevolent as to share with me a bit of your most valuable knowledge.

Best regards, Andreas Paglietti http://unica2.unica.it/dis/Teachers/Paglietti.htm http://publications.acerten.com/

Thu September 11 2014 19:33

Martin replies: I do not know the limit values that vary for different cells. Maybe a reader can help?


Dear Professor Emeritus Chaplin, may I first congradulate you for your very informative website. Then to ask the following questions; the increasing value of latent heat released from a freezing sample coincides with nucleation? Would you agree that after this release, the latent heat reaches a plateau (freezing point), that coincides with crystal growth. Many thanks for your answers.

With kind regards, Elias Anastassopoulos

PS. You may include my email at your guestbook.

Wed August 27 2014 09:41

Martin replies: The nucleation only involves a very small proportion of the ice and the measured latent heat involves the whole process, so I do not agree with your hypothesis.


Dear Prof. Chaplin, I wish to congratulate you on the quality of your content. Detailed and informative. Currently going through the electrolysis notes.

Thank you ! Best Regards, Nikolaos Delavogias

Fri February 28 2014 06:05


Excellent job. Thank you very much for creating the best water site I've ever visited. The information falls and flows like a drop in a river. Regards, Dr. Rodrigo Iglesias, Depto de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba

Sat November 30 2013 18:25


Dear Prof. Chaplin , Great monography about water, very useful. Thank you fro your effort
Dr. Hegoi Manzano <https://sites.google.com/site/hegoimanzano/>

Wed August 21 2013 12:21


Hello Mr Chaplin , I was wondering if this information was published in a book or pdf file for purchase?

I would like to have a complete copy for reference and study

Thanks, Roy Jackson

Sun February 17 2013 16:06

Martin replies: Thanks, but I do not produce a pdf as the information is constantly being updated


Happy New  Year I was reading a novel that referenced ice-fifteen and had to look it up to see if there truly were ‘different ices’.  The address that this email will have will shortly be gone but I would greatly appreciate it if I could be allowed to obtain further information regarding the various structures  of ice, how they are created and their attributes. My name is Kaecey Pitz and the email address that will continue is  pitz.k.c@gmail.com  .   As I stated earlier, this would be used to further my knowledge but I do not feel I would be able to contribute. Please consider adding my name to those allowed to gain this knowledge.

Thank you, Kaecey Pitz <pitz.k.c@gmail.com>

Mon January 14 2013 17:57


For those of your readers who are interested in computing the thermodynamic properties of water within a simulation loop, I can recommend the paper by Professor H.M. Paynter:

Paynter, H.M., 1985 ‘Simple Veridical State Equations for Thermofluid Simulation: Generalization and Improvements Upon Van der Waals’, ASME J. Dynamic Systems, Meas. & Control, Vol. 107, No. 4, pp. 233-234.

Thanks for your site - many interesting references.

Bob Gustafson <bobgus@rcn.com>

Wed December 5, 2012 15:55


Dear Martin, some references for your wonderful website

D. Flammini, A. Petropaolo, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, F. McBride, A. Hodgson, M. Adams, L. Lin, R. Car “Spherical momentum distribution of the protons in hexagonal ice from modeling of inelastic neutron scattering data” Journal of Chemical Physics,136, 024504 (2012); doi:10.1063/1.3675838

C. Andreani, D. Colognesi, A Pietropaolo and R. Senesi “Ground state proton dynamics in stable phases of water” Chemical Physics Letters, Frontier Article 518, 1-6 (2011), doi:10.1016/j.cplett.2011.09.036

C. Pantalei, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, P. Sozzani, A. Comotti, S. Bracco, M. Beretta, P. Sokol, and G. Reiter, “Interaction of single water molecules with silanol in mesoporous silica”, Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 13, 6022-6028 (2011)

A. Pietropaolo, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, J. Mayers “Quantum Effects in Water: Proton Kinetic Energy Maxima in Stable and Supercooled Liquid” Brazilian Journal of Physics, 39, 318, (2009)

A. Pietropaolo, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, A. Botti, M. A. Ricci, and F. Bruni “Pietropaolo et al. Reply” Physical Review Letters, 103, 069802 (2009)

C. Pantalei, A. Pietropaolo, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, S. Imberti, J. Mayers, C. Burnham, and G. Reiter “Proton momentum distribution of liquid water from room temperature to the supercritical phase” Physical Review Letters, 100, 177801 (2008)

A. Pietropaolo, R. Senesi, C. Andreani, A. Botti, M. A. Ricci, F. Bruni “Excess of proton mean kinetic energy in supercooled water” Physical Review Letters, 100, 127802 (2008),

A. Botti, F. Bruni, M. A. Ricci, A. Pietropaolo, R. Senesi, C. Andreani “Structure and Single Proton Dynamics of Bulk Supercooled Water”, Journal of Molecular Liquids, 136, 236–240 (2007)

V. Garbuio, C. Andreani, S. Imberti, A. Pietropaolo, G. F. Reiter, R. Senesi, M. A. Ricci “Proton quantum coherence observed in water confined in silica nanopores” Journal of Chemical Physics, 127, 154501 (2007)

best regards, Carla Andreani <carla.andreani@uniroma2.it>

Wed November 21, 2012 22:27


Dear Dr. Chaplin, Alfons Geiger, University of Dortmund, gave me yesterday the hint on your phantastic web-site, ” Water structure and Science” ! Congratulations on this work. ! I hope you agree that I immediately added the address of the site to the web-links  of the german Wikipedia Article “Eigenschaften des Wassers” (Properties of water) .

 Perhaps you know that, before my retirement, I published also some work on water and aqueous solutions. In particular we measured very accurately the self-diffusion coefficient D of water as a function of temperature. The paper is meanwhile well accepted as a reference source for accurate self-diffusion coefficients, in particular in the NMR community. Looking through your article, I saw that you give still the self-diffusion coefficients of water, heavy water, taken from older books, e.g. of Kauzman, which are slightly different from our recent  results (and the agreeing results of the Mills group in Australia). Therefore I attach our paper to this mail, hoping it will find your consideration!
If you are interested in my other publication, please find them on my web-site given in the signature.

With best regards, Dr. Manfred Holz (http://www.ipc.kit.edu/mik/14_506.php)

Tues October 2, 2012 11:40

Martin replies: Thanks, I have now added this reference.


The data as presented in (Time/Life, Life Science, Library, Water, 1966, p.14.) indicate that hydrogen was monkeyed with after our Periodic Table was laid out. Tim Reynolds

Wed September 26, 2012 03:36


Dear Mr. Chaplin, I stumbled onto your site for my research, and I just wanted to thank you for putting it all together... What an amazing resource! I am studying the effects of buffer solution on the formation of self-assembled monolayers of graphite-binding peptides.  I am looking for information about the double-layer formation, and Debye-Huckel interactions at the water/graphite interface.  I haven't gotten to the full answer yet, but your website has provided me with some very useful insights.  Thank you! - David Starkebaum

Sat September 22, 2012 02:20


Dear Professor Chaplin, Thank you for having such a wonderful site about water.  I am currently doing research, and responsible for the simulation of, the effect of electric fields on water mixed with cloth and your site has been very helpful.
I am a bit of a novice concerning this overall area, but believe from reading your site that the following to be the governing
relationships I need to be concerned about.  Would you agree?
1)  The electric fields will induce the water dipole to reorient the water molecule to the time varying field.  The ability of
the water dipole to reorient to the field is a function of frequency, power of the field, temperature of the water, the water
dielectric properties, water type and purity, and the bonding of the water to the cloth.  For cloth that is hydrophobic there
will be little bonding of the water to the cloth, for cloth that is hydrophilic there will be more bonding.  Also effecting the water's ability to orient to the fields is if the water is constrained by those cloth interactions verses generally just taking up the free space in the cloth.
2)  Assuming the dipole reorients with the time varying field heat is produced and the thermal equilibrium of the system
changes.  This changes the vapor pressure encouraging water to transition to a gas state and leave the cloth.  I am
currently reading the following papers to try and understand the relationships between textiles and water better.
Moisture Transmission Through Textiles
Part I:  http://www.autexrj.com/cms/zalaczone_pliki/4-07-2.pdf
Part II: http://www.autexrj.com/cms/zalaczone_pliki/5-07-3.pdf
If you have any papers not referenced in your excellent website that would be applicable to my work I would greatly like to see them.  Let me know if you have other thoughts on my research area.  Thanks again for you excellent site. An appreciative engineer, David M Williams <David_M_Williams@Whirlpool.com>

Tue March 27, 2012 17:45


Hi Martin, Many thanks for your excellent water website. It s really a gift to be able to more efficiently access all the literature concerning water on one site. Daniel Hersson-Ringskog

Wed February 29, 2012 18:40


Dear Professor Chaplin,  I think your web site is quite wonderful and unique. I advice most of my students to have a careful look at it. I am myself very much interested in the dynamics of liquid water and hydrogen bond. To this aim I perform experimental studies of physical quantities such as proton momentum distribution and proton mean kinetic energy of water and water systems in bulk and confined geometry via Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering (the neutron Counterpart of Compton x-ray Scattering) .  If you think this work might be of some interest for your web page I will happy to send you my full list of publications on this matter.
Looking forward to hearing from you , Best regards, Carla Andreani

Fri August 5, 2011 15:58


many thanks for the high pressure phase diagrams for water - most people don't care what happens to water in the interior of Neptune but I do and this helps very much.

sstone9

Tue 5 July, 2011 17:42


Dear Prof. Chaplin, I found you site very helpfull. I was particularly interested in the part on water activity and the (im)possibility to predict water activity for real system. Is it still your opinion that water activity can not be predicted, except for very simple systems?

Prof.dr. Hans-Gerd Janssen

Tuesday 24 May, 2011 13:12

Martin replies: I still believe that (except using empirical equations derived from the system studied). However, I wonder if you are able to change my view,


Dear Martin I am a Masters Student in food chemistry. I want to use your hydrocolloids portion for one of my academic assignments. I tried a lot but could not find the citation information for your website/ web page. Can you please mail me or post in your visitor book, the citation information? I will be really grateful to you.

Best regards Amanjeet Kaur

Friday April 15, 2011 12:25
Martin replies:A typical citation for a page on my site would be similar to:
Chaplin, M. F. Hydrocolloids and gums, http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/hydro.html accessed on 15 April 2011.


Dear Dr Chaplin, I am Aloysius Rusli, PhD Leeds, UK, 1976, Senior Lecturer in Materials Physics at the Parahyangan Catholic University, Bandung, Indonesia. I got your URL from a report of a team of my postgrad students at the teacher’s university in Bandung. I was very glad to be able to get the phase diagram of H2O from your site, to attract students’ attention to the various properties of ‘ordinary’ water, to increase their concern wih it. Reading the comments in your visitor’s book, you are doing excellent work, and hope that you will keep it up with the latest developments. I wonder if I could find something scientific about ‘hexagonal’ water that is being promoted to the general public in Indonesia; I think it is something fishy.

Sincerely, A Rusli

Friday April 8, 2011 11:04

Martin replies: I am afraid that I have nothing scientific to say about 'hexagonal water'. I do not believe the hype and I agree with your 'something fishy'.


Hi, Professor Martin Chaplin, nice to meet you, my name is Perla Artemisa Escalante Crespo, I’m Mexican and I just start working with water model, your web is pretty awesome, the information is the best I’ve found online and I would like to keep reading about your work… I’m studying a PhD in Electrical Engineering and my project is going to be water molecules, electromagnetic fields and something pretty new, so, I would like the content is easy to read, very complete and interesting. Thank you!

Perla Artemisa Escalante Crespo

Tuesday February 15, 2011 21:16


Dear Martin Chaplin I have followed your page for years. Looked in it, read parts of it, understood a little of it now and then. (I studied chemistry at the Norwegian University in 1964 for one year before I studied architecture). Chemistry has been my second interest, and in some scale I feel that it is two parts of the same family chemistry = microcosmos architecture = macrocosmos. To try to understand water (molecules) are fascinating, as structure and content for life. But as I am not a scientist I try to understand things more as analogies and patterns. Your list of Water anomalies are especially interesting, and the graphic drawings. ......I have a feeling that it is interesting that the specific capacity (Cp) of water has a minimum at 36 degrees Celcius , and I wonder if this fact has lead to the biological development of our human body temperature, or not ?? (Nature, must have sought for the best function in all its development.... ) ...... Another very fascinating thing to see is the different phases of molecular vibrations. It is is just as this great small scale mobility is linked to the great building diversity water has combined with soluble matter. (. ending up with the result of self-reproducing molecules, the diversity of life...) ..... as an analogy, it is funny to think about light passing water ( and glass) with a slower speed than in air, and then it speeds up when through. Perhaps light has the same speed all the time, but it has to bend in curves around the molecules so it looks as if it has a slower speed in water.... as running on open plain and through wood... .....another fascinaing thing are the "nearness" in scale and dimensions of the visual light spectrum (wave lenghts) and the size of molecules or smallest life building blocks. (visible light from ultraviolet to infrared wavelenght, 400 nm - 700 nm, water molecule ca 0.3 nm, DNA ca 2.5 nm diam., virus ca 50x600 nm) (if I have understood it right). This was just some winding thoughts from an interested fan & www-reader. sincerely

Amund Kjellstad

Friday December 17, 2010 23:49


Hi Martin, I only want to tell you, your water web page is very good. Thanks. With best regards,
Filip Uhlik

Thursday December 16, 2010 13:40


Dear Dr. Chaplin, I visited your very nice water science pages for the first time today. I was first particulary interested in the subject of water density anomaly. I did not find reference to my own theory on the fundamental reason for the partly ice-like structure of water close to the freezing point, so perhaps you have missed reading it and might be interested in it. This theory is quite widely referenced in the ice-literature nowadays. Please find the paper attached. I will keep using your very useful water science pages.

Sincerely, Lasse Makkonen, Ph.D. Chief Research Scientist Technical Research Centre of Finland Box 1000, 02044 VTT, Finland

Friday November 19 2010 15:52

Martin replies: This paper is now referred to at [1686]


Dear Mr. Chaplin: I am conducting literature studies on water clusters and sorption properties to better understand the effects that plant extracts: cellulose, enzymes, and biosurfactants may have on water in hydrocarbon substrates, and I found your site as an "External" reference under Water Clusters in Wikipedia.  I would like to express my delight with your comprehensive materials.  I've just begun to realize (I won't go so far as to say I understand) the complexity of water, cluster theory, and sorption properties, and your site provides an incredible resource for me to better understand the tests and results discussed in the various research papers.  Respectfully,
Matthew Cohen, California, USA

Tuesday, April 13, 2010 19:30


Dr. Chaplin, I realize that this is a trivial question but how long can water
remain super cooled (say < -10 °C) before it spontaneously freeze?

J. B. Brownridge
Thursday, September 17, 2009 9:27:13 PM

Martin replies: Crystallization is random. So the answer is “as long as it takes”


Dear Professor Chaplin, Thank you very much for creating the most comprehensible and scientifically veritable site-page about water and its structure on internet. The content of the site-page of yours is so amazing and interesting with scientific point of view that I could not be refrained from writing a comment on it to acquaint western researchers with the hypothesis and ideas on water structure of Russian scientist Dr. S. V. Zenin, whose points of views are shared by me  on this site-page http://www.o8ode.ru/article/oleg/>. According to S.V.Zenin's hypothesis water represents hierarchy of correct volumetric structures "assosiates" (clathrates) in which basis lays the cristall like  “quantum of water ", consisting of 57 imolecules of water which cooperate with each other due to hydrogen bonds in such a way that 57 molecules of water quantums forming the structure of a tetrahedron. The tetrahedron in its turn consists of 4 dodecahedrons. 16 quantums of water in their turn forming the structural element consisting of 912 molecules of water so that water on 80 % consists of such elements like those: 15 % - quantums-tetrahedrons and 3 % - classical molecules of water. Thus, the structure of water is connected with so-called Platone bodies of tetrahedron and dodecahedron, the form of which is connected to a gold proportion. The nucleus of oxygen in water molecule also has the form of Platone body of tetrahedron. Structures of water clusters have been found theoretically, the today's computer facilities allows to elucidate it. Moreover, the further comparison of experimentally found and designed data proved, that polymers of water seem to have that structure which is described above. In 2001 Dr. Stanislav Zenin together with Dr. B. Polanuer (now in the USA) carried out comprehencible research of water structure by the methods of refractometry, NMR and high effective liquid chromatography, by means of which researchers managed to find out in analysed samples of water clusters of water, which was predicted theoretically.

Sincerely Yours, Dr. O. V. Mosin,

Wednesday, August 26, 2009 2:23:34 PM

Dear Dr. Chaplin, I enjoy the collection of your work tremendously and appreciate it very much.  I am working with a company which is enabling water cluster application in semiconductor industry and am glad that the bank of information in your site can provide a fresh insight in the related science. Wish you very best and would like to keep in touch.

Best regards, Omid Tehrani, Nano-Om Technology Inc.
Sunday, August 09, 2009 10:28:12 PM


Dear Martin, Thank you for using a Creative Commons licence for your website.

I found the information in Water Structure and Science, very interesting and informative. Keep up the good work and the sharing. FYI - I was looking at the links to LSBU from outside and the two highest, non-search engine links are to your Water Structure and Science, pages via YouTube.

Regards, Alan Lee
Tuesday, July 14, 2009 4:38:53 PM


Dear Professor Chaplin, I just wanted to tell you that I think your Water Structure and Science, website is wonderful and truly excellent! Thank you!
Jonathan Saul Caine, Ph.D., U. S. Geological Survey
19 April 2009 18:12:04


This is great. Thanks for your (obviously) considerable work in getting it together.

Adam Ellison

10 April 2009 01:03:47

Dear Dr. Chaplin, Thank you for the very informative web site on water. I wonder about the hydrogen bond. There are Zundel's and collaborators' studies on absorption of water in the infrared, which can only be described by protons tunneling between two sites of the bridge, thus giving rise to a continuous spectrum. This tunneling is genuinely
quantum mechanical, it cannot be described by assuming Born-Oppenheimer approximation. But everybody seems to do so. Of course, going beyond BOA is a tremendous task, but, in principle, big errors may occur, when you ignore break down of BOA in calculations.
Sincerly, Werner Weber, theoretical physics, TU Dortmund, Germany
Monday, April 06, 2009 12:09:45 AM


Dear Martin, I have found your collection of water-related links very useful, although the use of water as a solvent for organic reactions is missing. I hope that you will find the following article maybe interesting:
http://www.organic-chemistry.org/Highlights/2007/01February.shtm I am thankful if you promote green chemistry and please do not hesitate to contact me if you have questions!
Best regards Reto Mueller
Friday, April 03, 2009 9:47:15 PM


Dr. Chaplin, Just a note to say "Thank you": your water structure and science site is a well annotated source for information regarding the often neglected role of water in applied chemical systems. I thank you for your dedication in keeping this site updated with references to recent publications. It is a resource that I turn to regularly and have recommended to numerous students and colleagues.
Bill (William A. Smith, Idaho National Laboratory)
02 April 2009 22:19:23


Dear Dr Chaplin, My name is Andrew Voronkov, I am PhD student of Moscow State University. I read your web page on water molecules and each of its updates with big interest. My primary interest is simulation of proteins - for refinement of   protein structures I used molecular dynamics simulations. I've made comparison of implicit GBSA water model with TIP3P explicit water model and the RMSD was reduced twice against GBSA. I want to try some improved against TIP3P water model, so I have two quesitons:
1) If we don't consider computational time (I work on supercomputer) which water model can you recommend for protein structure refinement and maybe even folding? I concluded from your review that TIP5P from non polarizable and SWM4-NDP from polarizable are the most appropriate.

2) Do you know some groups which develop water models specially for biomolecules simulations (protein simulations)? I'll be glad to become a tester for them.

Best regards, Andrew

Tuesday, March 31, 2009 11:40:06 AM


Your website is absolutely awesome... It is undoubtedly the single most comprehensive source for information on water solvent structure, interaction with salts, effects on proteins... etc. etc. etc. This resource has proven invaluable to me recently, and I simply  wanted to express my gratitude for your very thorough work...

Best wishes, John (John LaCava, PhD, Rout Lab, Rockefeller University)

Thursday, March 26, 2009 3:43:01 PM


Dear Dr. Chaplin:  No other source—either online or off—has proved so useful or so cogent as your website.  I have used it extensively (with citation, or course) in my essays on atmospheric water at my own website, www.climates.com.  Since the absorption spectra of the water dimer is different from the monomer, and since the dimer appears to be more abundant in the atmosphere than previously assumed (see the work of Hargrove and others), I have come to the conclusion that absorption by the dimer might well account for a significant part of the “anomalous cloud shortwave absorption” that has puzzled climatologists over the past few decades.  Do you have any feelings on this matter?

Patrick J. Tyson

12 March 2009 23:30:22


Hallo Dr. Chaplin. I appreciate your site, I interested in it. I am Felixtianus Eko Wismo Winarto, Indonesian. I study at University Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar seri iskandar, Perak darul ridzuan, Malaysia. Before I worked at Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, central Java, Indonesia. My study area is waste water purification specifically aerobic aeration.
I am interested in that topic because I note that the human population at the earth is growing rapidly, and one of the human essential needs is water (clean water). Started from that, I should try to purify poluted water (waste water) in a shortest time, so it can fullfil the needs. If you have any paper related to water purification especially on aerobic aeration may I ask, please send me the soft copies. Thank's

Sincerrily yours, Felixtianus eko 

Tuesday, February 10, 2009 2:53:32 AM


Dear Dr. Chaplin: We do a great deal of work with polymers and their hydration in a variety of solutions.  Your site helps to provide a better mental picture of what is happening.

Thank you, Tom Wentzler Magnolia Research

Saturday, February 07, 2009 9:01:24 PM


Thank you from Colynn Kerr, in Calgary CANADA, for your excellent website. As I sit here Xmas morning, looking out the window at the deep white snow, at a spot where 2km deep glaciers stood just a few thousand years ago, I am in awe of the power and beauty of water. Your fine website enhances my wonder and awe at nature's beauty.
Thank you for this Xmas gift!

25 December 2008 18:26


Dear Mr Chaplin, I read with great interest your article on possible influence of  electromagnetic radiation on water. I do not have a scientific  background but I have read several articles and scientific research on 
the subject. My other concern is the use of chlorine in drinking  water. My own tap water is badly affected by chlorination as my house is first on-line from the holding tank – the water is undrinkable! I have seen mention of the possibility of chlorine being destabilised into free radical form. Does this mean that chlorine has oxidant (or  antioxidant) effects in its ability to neutralise bacteria etc? I have also read of EMR increasing free radical formation. What would  then be the possibility of EMR increasing further breakdown of  chlorine into free radicals in tap water? I would be most interested to hear your views on the subject.
Many thanks Charles Simpson
Wednesday, August 13, 2008 9:38:52 AM

Martin replies: Chlorine radicals do not last long in solution and will naturally be produced, in any case. I do not see this as a significant hazard in drinking water It may be important in particular circumstances, such as if the water contained organic material.


Hi Martin Many thanks for your prompt reply. Sorry to trouble you again, but living in a rural area our local water contains large amounts of run-off from fields introducing manure and sheep foecal matter etc. I know that the water company then add large amounts of chlorine to kill off this material. Further to what you said can the chlorine free radicals interact sufficiently leaving a lasting effect? If that is the case is it possible that EMR (transformer above holding tank which I can see from my house) can have some detrimental influence? On a personal note I can get stiff neck and headache from drinking our tap water even if well filtered - something odd is happening!

Many thanks Charles Simpson


Hallo Dr. Chaplin, I appreciate your site, I work with water from an artistic and technological stand point- particularly around its more subtle qualities around its structure. You seem to confirm what I've understood about its tetrahedral structure- but much of the scientific jargon was beyond me. Is it true from your research that the molecule holds a tetrahedral structure? For the technology I work with its crucial that we can convey this point- see my website www.californiaflowforms.org- the inventor or our technology lives not far from you. Also, have you found that different qualities of water (polluted vs. pure) affect its structure? Our work is closely related to the work of Austrian scientist Victor Schauberger, I'm curious if you're aware of his work and what you think of it. I intend to study your site more and will link it from mine soon. Thank you,
Patrick Garretson
Thursday, July 10, 2008 11:02:34 PM
Martin replies: Victor Schauberger was a clever scientist . His ideas have been extended by others to beyond the support of current science.


Dear Prof. Chaplin, I found your Water Structure and Science site extremely useful. It is very convenient for us – readers – to have such a complete overview, especially due to astonishing full reference list.

I have lead a small scientist group in Joint Institute of Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia) for some years. The base topic of work was to develop a highly precise radioanalytical technique for studying ultra-diluted aqueous solutions [1]. Main focus was set on transport phenomena, such as electrophoresis and diffusion of different ions [2, 3]. To cut long story short, in our course of investigation we have found that ions mobility in low acidic water solutions (pH = 2.5 – 4.5) show an abnormal high values [4]. Outside this pH region ions mobility has normal (expected, predicted) values. Note that this effect (so called “Abnormal acceleration”) take place independently of ions type investigated: cations or anions, simple or complex, small or large, well- or poor-hydrated. Thus, a solvent (water) structure should be responsible: there should be some kind of reversible water structure reordering, rearrangement at that pH scale – such to ensure the increase of ions mobility. The abnormal acceleration effect is strange and could not be explained by any theory at that moment; nevertheless it does exist. I am very interested in its origins; moreover one of our hypotheses could lead to conclusions of dramatic importance to biochemistry and cell biology.

I am not a specialist in field of matter (water) structure, and therefore am looking for your comment on that subject. If you are interested, I could provide additional materials. I am currently open for collaboration.

References:

1. S.N. Dmitriev, M.V. Milanov, B.A. Alikov, G.A. Bojikov, G.D. Bontchev, T.A. Furyaev, O.D. Maslov, A.N. Priemyshev, A.B. Salamatin. Device for horizontal ion electrophoresis in a free electrolyte. JINR FLNR Scientific Reports 1997-98 “Heavy Ion Physics”, Dubna (2000), p. 207-208
2. G.A. Bojikov, P.I. Ivanov, G.D. Bontchev, A.N. Priemyshev, O.D. Maslov, M.V. Milanov, S.N. Dmitriev. Determination of the diffusion coefficients of Cd(II), In(III), Zr(IV), Hf(IV) and Pu(VI) hydrated ions in aqueous solutions using the method of horizontal zone electrophoresis in free electrolyte. 9th Conference on Separation of Ionic Solutes (SIS’01), Slovakia, Bratislava, Modra-Harmonia, June 5 – 10 (2001), Abstracts - p. 88-90
3. O.D. Maslov, G.D. Bontchev, G.A. Bojikov, P.I. Ivanov, A.N. Priemyshev, M.V. Milanov, S.N. Dmitriev. Research on the behavior of In(III) ions in ultramicroconcentrations in aqueous solutions by the method of horizontal zone electrophoresis in a free electrolyte. 9th Conference on Separation of Ionic Solutes (SIS’01), Slovakia, Bratislava, Modra-Harmonia, June 5 – 10 (2001), Abstracts - p. 91-93
4. G.D. Bontchev, G.A. Bojikov, P.I. Ivanov, M. Milanov. An effect of abnormal ion electromigration rate in aqueous solutions at pH between 2,5 and 4,5. Scripta Scientifica Medica, Medical University – Varna, 37, 2 (2005), p. 87-90

Best regards, G. Bontchev, PhD gogob@dir.bg

:-Thursday, May 29, 2008 10:11:07 AM


hi prof. martin chaplin. i am looking into using Brown`s gas as supplementary fuel in a diesel car & although there is a lot of info about (mainly USA) there is certainly a least 3 major routes to take. i favour using 42.8 Khz (or there about), however suggestions about 1 or 2 dead plates between + & - plates may be good ??. have you a preferred method to achieve high output of gas.your opinion would be appreciated. allthebest4now
ken wilks
:-17 May 2008 15:47:43
Martin replies: Unfortunately not; I do not beleive that this system has been properly analyzed. Does anyone wish to add any comments here?

Dear Sir, I think your site is quite wonderful. Although I'm not involved in any sciences, it doesn't mean science is not of major interest to me. I enjoy reading such material extensively, as recreation (to me) - a love of learning. Water is a fascinating subject & has interested me for many years. It's the "stuff of life"!

But as interesting & informative as your site is, I can only read it for a short period of time before my eyes start spinning in my head. ;-) Well, not quite but the colour of your background in the individual articles is unbearable for me. My head will literally hurt after working to focus on the text. The deep teal background makes it very hard to see the black text clearly plus the red hyperlinked words appear to 'vibrate' or shimmer to me. I'm sure the unpleasantness of focusing on the words affects my ability to remember what I read as well as I could.

While the way I perceive the text against such intense colours may seem highly unusual to you, it's not that uncommon. A lot of people have this problem - it's called Scotopic Sensitivity/Irlen Syndrome & it affects the way we view some objects. It's most common in people with autism or Asperger's syndrome or learning/reading disorders but it can be found in many others too. Perhaps those of us who don't seem to have other disorders share some genes in common with those who are autistic. My oldest son (well respected programmer) has Asperger's so I'm sure there are genes that cause this problem.

This is not meant to be critical in a unkind way but meant constructively. Usually, when I find a site that's difficult to read, I ignore it & simply find another. But your site is quite unique. I don't wish to ignore it! I've never bothered to write a site owner before about this but your site is special - sincerely meant.

I can do some basic HTML formatting & am almost tempted to copy the entire source code for your pages & then reformat them & put them up in my own web site (I have one that's strictly private & not accessible to the public), simply so I could read them at leisure. But I'm hoping that my plea will cause you to rethink your web formatting. If your text was on a neutral light coloured background, it would be SO much more readable. Is it possible for you to do so, please? My truest gratitude for an otherwise excellent site!
sincerely, Judy Wilkins
:- April 29, 2008 12:38:04 AM
Martin replies: The site is not supposed to look like you describe. The background should be a very pale yellow. I wonder what browser and system you use. If you could tell me, I will try to ensure that it works with that one. It does work well in the latest versions of the main browsers but I have just ‘updated’ the code and have run into some bugs with backwards compatibility.
Later note: Apparently this behavior is due to the background image bug in KDE's Konqueror
.


Hello: My name's José Antonio Molina and I´m grateful for your information I've taken about the structure of starch in www.scirus.net. I'm Veterinarian and I work in a food industrie in Spain.
Thank You again José Antonio Molina
:- March 26, 2008 7:54:52 PM


Prof. Chaplin, If pure liquid water is under modest pressure in a plastic container, say 2 to 5 atmospheres gage, and the temperature is very close to freezing (possibly below 0 C), will ice form if the pressure is suddenly released? Does this occur because of the small compressibility of water?

Thank you very much, Ronald Vincent

:-February 29, 2008 5:51:09 PM
Martin replies: It is possible that a small amount could freeze under very tightly controlled conditions due to the pressure lowering the freezing point. However the temperature range for this effect is a tiny fraction of a degree. It is more likely that the water is supercooled and the release shock causes freezing. Neither effect is due to the compressibility of water.


I have a question concerning electrolysis of water. I’m conducting a very simple experiment using a combined fuel cell/electrolyzer. First I split the water into H2 and O2 using the device as an electrolyzer at app. 1.67 V and 0.3 A. Then I recombine the H2 and O2 into water again, where the fuel cell produces electricity and have a toy electromotor run on it. Usually after app. 5 minutes of electrolyzing I have app. 10 cm3 H2 and 5 cm3 O2. The toy motor will run about 30 minutes using the device as a fuel cell. So far the process is reproducible every time. However I noticed that the process when I’m using the same water over and over again, the fuel cell producing electricity will produce less and less electricity. It seems to me that the reaction of H2 and O2 becoming H2O again becomes less and less spontaneous. Sometimes the motor only runs for a couple of minutes and then stops completely. However when I disconnect the wires and reconnect them after a couple of minutes it will run again, but only for a short time. Do you have an explanation for this finding or could you give me hint at what might be happening here? Your answer would greatly appreciated.
Kind regards, Dick Seegers
:- February 11, 2008 12:07:54 PM
Martin replies: I wonder if there is a pH effect but welcome any other suggestions from readers.

Dr. R. Dayal Yadav replies: Dear Prof. Chaplin good morning - The question on 'electrolysis and again reunion of hydrogen and oxygen leading to less energy output through the electric motor in each cycle of repeated operation on the same bulk of water without detaching the system' speaks volume. This relates to hydrogen bonding. The weak bond can perform the strongest work when the system is open to assimilate. Here the system is closed and operation is carried out on the same bulk of water. Thus the result. It is similar to wrapping two threads on each other ad recording the reverse sequence afterwards. After few operation the two threads will starts compromising and it is no wonder that after hundreds of operation the thread will look like twisted DNA. However this experiment and observation may be further extended to study the spirit and behavior of humans. We are working on a project that concentrates on molecular behavior of water in isolation. Regards Dr. R. Dayal Yadav Researcher Study Group DIM
:-Sunday, February 24, 2008 1:23:05 AM


I am working with freezing of food. We have seen high-density ice when we treat water with magnetic fields, power. Do you have any comments?
’C. (Water in a fish fililet.) We think the magnetic power have influence on the hydrogen bonds in water. At this level we have a spontaneous and very fast crystallization, and we get an amorphous ice. (We “produce” a type of under cooled water.) We call this a verification. The result is that fish filet after freezing and defrosting, have a quality nearly like fresh fish. At present time, there is a big drop loss after freezing, and reduced quality. What do you think about this?
Best regards / Med vennlig hilsen Nils Einar Aasen
:- February 01, 2008 11:01:14 PM
Martin replies: (two emails have been put together above) I believe the ice is hexagonal ice in the form of very small crystals.

Martin: You efforts in the study water is appreciated.  I am currently studying biological paradigms of buildings in which water plays a critical role, especially when considering the thermal performance of materials.  Your website has proven most helpful in understanding the complexities of water as a time variant material when introducing heat.
Anyway, thanks, Keith
:- 29 January 2008 19:53:19


Hi. I'm a ten-year-old boy looking for a science experiment and think water molecules would be cool. Can you help me?
Brian Kettering
:- 07 January 2008 03:50:08

Dear Sir, This is a wonderful site on water. Do you have this information in pdf format? I would love a hard copy. I am referring all my colleges to this site. Thank you so much for this information.
David Taylor
:- 29 December 2007 07:00:33
Martin replies: I do not provide a pdf of the site. Pages may be printed to pdf using the printer link at the top right of each page, in conjunction with the appropriate software such as Macromedia Flashpaper.
Dear Professor Martin Chaplin, I also sincerely appreciate your hard work in putting all this information together, making it accessible, well organized. It is often used by my students! I hope you will agree if I use several of your figures (icosahedra, phase diagrams) for my textbook in Lithuanian on protein biothermodynamics (with reference to your website).
Sincerely, Dr. Daumantas Matulis,
:-19 October 2007 08:44:55
I believe that the boiling point of water is unexpectedly high due to hydrogen bonding. If hydrogen bonding is reduced by the presence of a chaotrope, wouldn’t the boiling point be depressed rather than elevated in the manner normally expected from the presence of a solute?
Michael Parrish chem@parrish.onyxnet.co.uk
:-25 September 2007 00:02:51
Martin replies: The effect on boiling point is a colligative effect dependent on the increase in entropy due to mixing with the solute; both chaotropes and kosmotropes do this. In a way you are correct in that a kosmotrope has a greater raising effect than a chaotrope if it binds more water.
Wow this site is amazing its been a great help thanks,
Nathanael
:-Wednesday, September 19, 2007 7:58:01 PM
Dear Prof. Chaplin, You have done a great service for the scientific community and for educating the general public. Congratulations! I found your explanation of water molecules, its spectroscopy, and its dynamic structures extremely useful for my class. I wonder if I can use part of it to teach for my class and also use some images and information for a chapter for a textbook. I would greatly appreciate your generosity. It will save me a lot of time to redraw these images.
Shuguang Zhang, Ph.D. Center for Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
:-Monday, August 27, 2007 6:56:42 PM
Martin replies:Generally I give permission in such cases, so long as the material is not too extensive, I am given a specic list of pictures, etc. and this web-site is cited.
Dear Dr. Chaplin: Thank you very much for your site. I have found the information I was looking for. Be sure your information will be properly cited. If I can send you a question/suggestion, it should be this: What about a glossary?
Best regards Juan Antonio Vera Aparici, Technical Adviser on Atmospheric Pollution, Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Públicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3-5, 28014 MADRID, SPAIN
E-mail: Juan.A.Vera@cedex.es; URL: http://www.cedex.es
:- Tuesday, August 21, 2007 1:19:29 PM
Martin replies: A glossary is a good idea. I will start one. Please send me suggestions for words to include..
Dear Prof. Chaplin good morning - Your service has helped me to an extent that I have forgotten to visit library. I am working on molecular water - void of any aggregation that leads to hydrogen bonding - to see how best it could be used as triggering device employing laser technique.
Dr. R. Dayal Yadav Researcher Stuidy Group DIM
:- Tuesday, 21 August 2007 06:05:06
Thanks for constructing a great site. I could not however find answers to the following questions: Some of these topics would make a nice introduction to your site.
Regards, Hilton Goodhead, Hilton.Goodhead@rorotika.com
:- Sunday, July 29, 2007 8:28:08 PM
Professor Chaplin, Whenever I start to look for anything water-related I always finish up on your site!  Could you give me any guidance or suggest other sources on the role of water in photo-catalysis, please?   Having produced an electron/hole pair after a sufficiently energetic collision leading to hydroxyl/superoxide ion production in nearby water with dissolved oxygen, I need an understanding of the possible persistence of the effect and its “range” – how far from the catalyst surface might the effect be felt?   I understand that the half-life of the hydroxyl ion is in the order of a nanosecond and the superoxide ion much longer – up to half a second.   Do you have any comments on this?   Does it sound reliable?   Any advice (or pointers elsewhere) would be most appreciated.
Best regards, Peter Hare, P.HARE@APPALLPROTECT.NL
:- Thursday, July 19, 2007 3:07:57 PM
Finally, a great online resource for the study of water structure!
I've been seeking this for a long time (not an easy find due to enormous number of irrelevant hits, unfortunately). Zoli Fekete
:-Wednesday, July 18, 2007 1:45:02 PM
Dear Martin, I would like to know your opinion about the following inferences: In the words of Nobel Laureate Albert Szent-Gyorgyi, "LIFE IS WATER DANCING TO THE TUNE OF SOLIDS", but studying the remarkable and versatile bio-activity of hydrated fullerenes (http://www1.lsbu.ac.uk/water/buckmin.html and http://www.fullwater.com.ua/), I incline to believe that "LIFE IS THE CARBON-CONTAINED SOLIDS
DANCING TO THE TUNE OF ORDERED STRUCTURES OF WATER". Our fullerene's site  http://fullwater.com.ua (Russ) (in Engl on.../page6.html, .../page8.html and .../page4.html)
Sincerely yours, Grigoriy Andrievsky. E-mail: yard@kharkov.ua
: -Wednesday, 11 July 2007 16:53
Martin replies: I believe you are quite right.
Best regards, Branislav Vulevic, M Sc.EE, "VINCA" INSTITUTE OF NUCLEAR SCIENCES , Radiation and Environmental Protection Laboratory , P.O.Box 522, 11 001 Belgrade, SERBIA
:- Wednesday, July 11, 2007 11:55:19
Dear Professor Chaplin, Is it true that water molecules have either a right turning or left turning electrical spin. Does polluted water, tap water and most well water all have a right spin & does healthy, life-promoting waters from pure springs all have left spins? Thank you. Yours sincerely
Terence Davidson
: - Thursday, May 30, 2007 at 13:40
Martin replies: No, to both questions. It would be easy if water was so simple!

Thanks for this review! How do you relate water quality and the effects of sound vibrations on water ? (see Lauterwasser's photos and Emamoto's works on ice formation). I'm working on sound's vibrations effects on humans in therapeutics, as a medical doctor. What can you do with vibration? (frequency, intensity, duration?) Thank you for your help Annie. ( 'scuse me for my english expression, i'm french!). What do you know about magnetic and electric fields and sound vibrations, about cells water? it's the last question for today Thanks for you
annie briand
: - Thursday, March 15, 2007 at 16:58:58 (GMT)
Martin replies: I describe magnetic and electric effects. Sound may have an effect on any nanobubbles present, but the resultant effects, if any, are not clear.


Greetings, congratulations for your excellent page on water.
I am giving a seminar on water for hihj school teachers of physics here in Slovenia and would like to obtain a permission to quote some parts of your web page. I am a professor of physics at the University of Ljubljana.
Kindest regards, Rudi Podgornik <rudolf.podgornik@fmf.uni-lj.si> <http://www.fmf.unilj.si/~podgornik/FMF_SITE/Domacastran.html>
 Useful - Monday, March 12, 2007 at 09:30:40 (GMT)
Martin replies: I usually grant permission to use small amounts of my material for such uses, so long as I am asked and the work is properly cited.
It is apparent that microwave radiation can radically alter the "life-giving" characteristics of water, as shown by the failure of seeds to sprout when moistened with water that has been boiled in a microwave oven for a period of minutes. In what way is the structure of water altered by microwaves to give rise to such a fundamental change in its effect on a living organism? Thank you for your informed attention on this matter, as, web-wise, there is only scoffing at this significant observation--that microwaved water is unusable by plants. (And most probably by other organisms as well.) The scoffing occurs in spite of the fact that this phenomenon can be quickly verified by simple, easily replicated experiments.
Fred Stasek <fredstsa@earthlink.net>
Interesting - Saturday, March 10, 2007 at 20:09:30 (GMT)
Martin replies: It should be easy to verify this, but I have not been able to confirm this result.
Thank you for the info!
How would you structure a model of a water molecule?
Tanya La Frenier <iluvraviolie@yahoo.com>
: - Thursday, March 08, 2007 at 15:39:05 (GMT)
Martin replies: Se my water model page

I really like your site. A wealth of information and a clear presentation.
Paul van der Varst
Useful - Wednesday, February 28, 2007 at 10:22:17 (GMT)


Cornell Discover the Structure of Water Although they haven't yet realised it. In the thread Energy Issues: What is LAG? "mo" drew attention to some research work by Cornell in the following post: http://www.steorn.com/forum/comments.php?DiscussionID=46301&page=4#Item_34
Because it's only short I'm pasting it here in full ==================================================
mo Feb 17th 2007 More Barkhausen http://www.lassp.cornell.edu/sethna/hysteresis/hysteresis.html ==================================================

Later in the thread I wrote a post which compared the Barhausen phenomena with the cracking of concrete, pointing out that these were the same phenomena in different hierarchies.

What I stupidly failed to connect with at the time was the following item of information:

This self-similar behavior is governed by certain universal critical exponents: universal here means that different systems (e.g., theory and experiment) will have the same exponents. For example, the probability of having an avalanche of size s at the critical point varies as s to the power tau. We've been running lots of systems on the Cornell Theory Center supercomputer, in order to extract these critical exponents in 2, 3, 4, and 5 dimensions. Karin Dahmen has been using the renormalization group to predict these exponents as a function of dimension: these theoretical methods converge best near the ``upper critical dimension'', which for our problem is six. After an amazing amount of hard work, we've found great agreement between theory and experiment:

Now the key phrase here is these theoretical methods converge best near the ``upper critical dimension'', which for our problem is six. Years ago I discovered the PV^6 = a constant equation of state for water and published it in an international conference on materials. A year or two ago I also asked Professor Chaplin to include the results on his unsurpassed Water website. Unlike the powers (exponents) I had been getting for clays and cemented materials this power was integral. I knew this must be significant but I could never work out what that significance was (not surprising in retrospect since I didn't have the use of the Cornell Theory Centre supercomputer).

Now, thanks to the Cornell research, the answer is obvious. Water is at the equivalent of the point of failure under compression in concrete. If you invert the well known Volume vs Temperature graph it is the same and the stress-strain curve for concrete at the point of maximum stress. The classic 4° maximum density point corresponds to the maximum stress point on the stress strain curve, in other words the strength. Well that's a turn up for the book! And to think that if it hadn't been for this forum and mo giving that reference to the Cornell work, that connection might have remained hidden for another 3 decades. Water is by far the most important fluid there is. After all, our own bodies are 70% water. Anything which advances our understanding of water and how it works is absolutely vital in a whole variety of research areas. Anyone here from Cornell? ==================================================
Frank Grimer <frankgrimer@fsmail.net>
Useful - Sunday, February 25, 2007 at 17:55:41 (GMT)


Very recently there have been news reports of unexpected large lakes and swift flowing rivers found below the antartic ice "that is kilometers thick in some areas" From the known phase diagrams of water, the fluid phase can exist to around 10^9 Pascals (with surface air pressure around 105 Pa) with temperatures around 0 degrees C and higher. Does the pressure of the "up to a kilometer thick" ice approach the pressure where the liquid phase is excluded? If not, why was the presence of water below the ice not predicted, as the temperature of the continental bedrock is well above 0 degrees?
Antoine van Gelder <avg@tocmed.com>
Interesting - Wednesday, February 21, 2007 at 17:10:35 (GMT)
Martin replies: Each kilometer of ice adds about 10 MPa. There is no way the pressure is great enough to turn liquid water to high-pressure ice at about 0 °C. Otherwise the ocean deeps would be ice too.
Hi What is the meaning of the term 'hydrophilic' and how can it be applied in the medical field. Tell me the history of ArJmoldes' principle.
Oscar Divala -<oscardivala@yahoo.co.uk>
Useful - Wednesday, February 14, 2007 at 11:45:53 (GMT)
Martin replies: Hydrophilic literally means 'water-loving'. Molecules, and parts of molecules, that interact strongly with water are termed hydrophilic. The opposite is 'hydrophobic'. You should Google elsewhere for ArJmoldes' principle.
I am studing in 11th standard. I need to do a science project in IT (informational tech) in simple form.
Anabayan <anabayant@rediffmail.com>
OK - Saturday, February 03, 2007 at 07:50:28 (GMT)
First of all I want to congratulate you for this site.I am professor in the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Campus Iztapalapa in Mexico City. I teach Biochemistry and I find your site about water just perfect for my students. Many of them don't speak English but are in their way to. I want to ask you for permission to put a link to your site from my own site http://bioquimica.jantoniopliegog.org and to use the little turning round molecule of water to do so. Sincerely yours.
Professor J. Antonio Pliego - http://profesor.jantoniopliegog.org
Useful - Wednesday, January 24, 2007 at 00:25:34 (GMT)
Martin replies: Thank you. You may certainly link to my site using my gif.
This site is absolutely brilliant. I am setting this site as my home page. Well done everyone
Andy Strang <andystrang88@hotmail.com>
Interesting - Monday, January 15, 2007 at 11:19:07 (GMT)
I would be grateful if you could provide me with the references associated with tthis publication. Best regards,Peter Kay
peter kay <peterhkay@gmail.com>
Useful - Thursday, January 11, 2007 at 06:00:53 (GMT)
Martin replies: All references are given as links in square brackets, for example, [1093 ].
Hi, I am a student myself, i like your website because it helps me with my course work. so i will like to say great job for creating this website and i also hope that you send me stuff concerning this website, that will help me with my work at college. concerning biology and chemistry.
Michael <raskpechy@hotmail.com>
Useful - Thursday, January 04, 2007 at 03:22:25 (GMT)
Well done and nicely researched. thanks for the info!!
kevin swiss, ph.d.
Useful - Wednesday, January 03, 2007 at 15:40:53 (GMT)

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