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Water Site Visitor's Book Archive 2004-2006

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your information is excellent
amitabh soni <>
Interesting - Wednesday, December 20, 2006 at 17:20:18 (GMT)
I am a biochemist not well trained in the deeper aspects of thermodynamics. However, I need to know the heat of solvation of water by water. Does this have a special name? Is it something that can actually be measured? If so, where might I find the number I'm looking for? I think the web site is extremely interesting and informative. jim fee
James A. Fee <>
Martin replies: What you need is the enthalpy of vaporization. This is the heat required to remove a molecule of water from water. Simply change its sign to minus.
Awe inspiring amount of work went into this site. Thank you for making it available to all that work in water related fields. We are presently doing an apparatus design study prior to fabricating the equipment fo our next series of tests related to the water vortex. We have succeeded in generating an "eyewall" type water vortex similar to a hurricane eyewall.( different configuration from a cone shaped tornado shaped water vortex). The near perfect vertical cylinder shape vortex should make it ideal to do some investigations using magnets, ultrasound, UV, high voltage fields, Microwave, aereation etc. You may have a suggestion or idea we can use in designing the setup to make it as modular as possible.PDF pics are available of the setup we can forward. Our research is directed toward methods of reducing mineral content in brackish and seawater prior to the RO process. A side benefit may be an improved method of reducing bacteria,virus and exotics form domestic water.
Dick Macaulay <>
Useful - Sunday, December 03, 2006 at 01:43:17 (GMT)

Why is the water important for our life?
mondial <>
OK - Sunday, November 26, 2006 at 16:07:08 (GMT)
Martin replies: See my page on 'Water and life'

Dear Professor Chaplin, Great job on the site, I was just reading through New Scientist's "Brilliant minds predict the next 50 years" in the 50th anniversary special and no mention of water! This would seem to me to be a rather large oversight, wouldn't you agree?
: - Wednesday, November 22, 2006 at 04:02:24 (GMT)
Martin replies: Definitely; maybe those minds were not quite so brilliant as they believed!

Dear Professor Chaplin, I am amazed and thrilled by the voluminous, interesting and evidence based information you have posted in your London South Bank University website. I tried searching other websites for refereed journals on processed water (including oxygenated water) and its health claims. However, the search had not been fruitful. I would be very grateful if you could point me to any scientific articles, websites or expert source. I am hoping to conduct a pilot clinical research relating to processed water and its health claims. Thank you so much for your sharing and contribution.
Stephanie - <>
Useful - Sunday, October 29, 2006 at 06:21:50 (GMT)
I am a father of a 7th grade student and we are doing a projet on freezing hot water and cold water and which one freezes faster hoping to duplicate the Mpemba effect. My son is adopted and an African American young man of 12 and I am of Irish descent, so I was thrilled to see how an African High School boy found that freezing warm ice cream was faster and that he convinced the scientific community he found something remarkable about the rate of freezing hot versus cold. We picked this project because for me it was just understood a bucket of warm water placed outside in the winter would freeze faster than a bucket of cold water because my parent told me and it was common knowledge among midwestern farmers. I never really questioned it. By reading this I see it is not all that simple and often does not work at various tempetures. We certainly take water for granted yet it is a mystery in many aspects, as a patent attorney I love it when things suprise us. Thanks for your wonderful web site. David and Ray
David L King - <>
Useful - Thursday, October 26, 2006 at 20:47:58 (BST)
Great work Mr. Chaplin! I think, I should call your work, "The Bible of Water Structure and Behaviour." Thank you very much for sharing such immense and valuable knowledge with the world.
Amit Raj Dhawan
Useful - Wednesday, October 04, 2006 at 00:55:05 (BST)
Experiment: Materials: -2 glasses -Food coloring -2 watches -Water boiler Instructions: Put boiling hot water in one glass and cold water in the other. Take the food coloring and place 4 drops in the cold water then start the timer. Then you do the same thing with the hot water and keep an eye on both glasses. When water is fully mixed, stop the timer and look at the other glass, watch the glass until the food coloring is mixed in then stop the timer. Results: When i did this experiment, the hot water took arround 22 seconds to mix and the cold water took arround 11 minutes to mix. Conclution: The hot water molecules move so fast, that the molecules move the coloring arround, but the cold molecules move too slow to move the coloring around very fast.
: - Tuesday, October 03, 2006 at 17:56:54 (BST)
I think there is water in mars. It's just that they are not looking in the right places. I wouldn't say " could be right under my nose", though, if I were in mars.
rekha bhukhan <>
Useful - Sunday, September 10, 2006 at 05:44:29 (BST)
Dear Professor Chaplin, This question is very important for my research and I dont know any other person, who I can ask. As I understand, water usualy form cluster structures around polymer molecules. But what happens to water in case the water flows inside the polymer gel?  On the one hand water is Newtonian fluid, viscosity is independent to strain rate (flow velocity). But on the other hand, pores inside the gel are very small and water clusters can "work" as microcolloids or, on the contrary, be broken by shear (and viscosity will be dependent on flow velocity). Can it be possible or not? If it is known to be possible, than at what scales and conditions of the polymer gel? The second question is the same, but about protein-water solution flowing through the gel instead of pure water. Can proteins influence water permeability of the gel by mecanism of water clustering? Does strain rate influence the amount of water bound to gel-forming molecules or to proteins in solution? Thank you very much for your attention and help. All the best,
Maria Akhmanova,<> (Moscow State University, Biophysics Departament)
Monday, September 4, 2006 at 1:11:05 PM
Dear Professor Chaplin, thanks for this comprehensive work. Could you give some more enlightenment on the effect of two revolving magnetic fields on water in between. I am particularly interested in the change from water to vapour/damp. Thank you for consideration
Rainer Csizmazia <>
Useful - Thursday, August 10, 2006 at 09:36:09 (BST)
As I came back from a long walk under the hot sun (Newbury) which I have not seen in UK for all my stay (last 10 years) but only back in India, I grabbed a bottle of water from the fridge and took a long gulp as my elder daughter asked 'Dad, did you know water is not supposed to exist as a liquid at this temperature?' (admittedly she is becoming a geek at 9 years). I did hear this long time back but never had any material to study about this but armed with the pc and broadband, had a go at it and found your site. Sir, I deeply respect and admire your knowledge and more than that your effort in maintaining this colassal information organised and presented in such a way that even I can make sense of this and can chat with my daughter and mesmerize her. If I had a chance to read this in my childhood, I would have chosen Chemistry as my career.
Please keep this good work up. (I have read only about 3 or 4 full pages and bits and pieces of experiments and explanations but hope to read as much as I can grasp sooner.) Thanks and warm regards,
Yours Truly, Vijay Venugopalan <>
 Interesting - Tuesday, July 25, 2006 at 21:51:25 (BST)
Dear Sirs, I happened to see your web site which is very interested in. My friend has recently developed a natural mineral stone which energizes the existing tap water and or other mineral water. I am not sure if this stone is really effective or not. Could you kindly give me your comments? Thanks in advance. Regards Kuroki K.Kuroki <>
Useful - Wednesday, July 12, 2006 at 04:50:30 (BST)
Martin replies: It remains to be proven. Similar claims by others have not been substantiated by good science.

Dear Professor Chaplin, What a wealth of knowledge! And it is so orderly presented. It is extremely rare to find such abundance of data in such an organized way. I am truly amazed and I wanted to congratulate you for the enormous amount of work you did and to thank you for allowing anyone to benefit from it. I got in a discussion with my neighbour who is a construction contractor. We chatted about the damages caused by frost to buildings and to water pipes and we was both know for a fact that this was due to an increase in volume of the ice as it reaches a given temperature. Yet, we don't know more than this increase of volume is around 11/10 that of water, according to what is widely referred to for icebergs. I did an intensive search on the Internet in order to find a graph where the change in volume versus the change in temperature would be correlated in a way we, the laymen, could visualize it readily. I did find charts but it always seems that the data are collected from freezing point an up. I am looking for a graph where we could see a continuity in the line from say, -40C through maybe 100C. I tried to extrapolate from the various values I found for the density, but I am not getting anywhere. I seem to get stuck at around 3.98C in terms of maximum volume. Thus my frustration in trying to explain to myself at what temperature exactly is the ice reaching its largest volume. I thought that working from the density backwards I could get somewhere but I do not have the maths to do it right it seems. I thought the change in volume due to temperature was somewhat linear, according to this formula [0.000053 °C-1 (-20 °C)], but this doesn't help, obviously. I suspect that this is trivial to you and it would not take too much of your time to find it out. You kind help would be greatly appreciated. Again, congratulations and thank you for this wonderful website. R. Lachance
Raynald Lachance <>
Interesting - Tuesday, July 04, 2006 at 02:24:02 (BST)
What is the isoelectric point of gelatin?
What is the resistance of gelatin to water ?
What is the change of gelatin to pH change(+ -) and what is the ability of that to attract ionic molecules
mohsn mustafa <> Useful - Sunday, July 02, 2006 at 19:34:17 (BST)
I am doing a project "isolation & production of alpha galactosidase from soil micro-organisms". We are using guar gum as carbon source for microbes. *Actually I wanted to ask that will it be OK to grow them at one pH=6.5 or will I grow them at different pH=4,6,8? *The medium is containing NH4NO3,KH2PO4,yeast extract,guar gum,MgSO4.7H2O. *There are both bacterial & fungal growth.and yeast was also found.which of these would be more better for further production of alpha galactosidase? *What kind of assay should be directed for production of alpha galactosidase? I hope you wouldn't mind to anwser these queries.
Interesting - Sunday, July 02, 2006 at 14:54:53 (BST)
I have been looking on the web for several years at information on hydrogen bonding and water in general.I believe that your site is the most complete view of structure and chemical bonding that I have ever found. Thank you for the time this must have taken to develop.
Useful - Saturday, June 10, 2006 at 13:38:49 (BST)
I am interested in water molecular clusters in the gas phase, such as in nitrogen. My questions are:

2. How stable is the cluster? Does the cluster interfere with water physical chemistry?
3. If second gases, such as N2, NH3, are involved, how does the water cluster change?
Jun Feng <>
 Interesting - Monday, June 05, 2006 at 18:53:36 (BST)
I want every information about sulfate ion?
: - Monday, June 05, 2006 at 16:00:47 (BST)
My question is how easy is it to understand the phase diagrams and eutectic point and my second question is that every substance has different properties so does every substance have their own phase diagram or there is similarity in the phase diagrams.
Azam Saeed <Azamsaeed86@Yahoo.Com>
Martin replies: Although some similarities exist, all substances have there own phase diagrams.

Useful - Saturday, May 27, 2006 at 07:34:36 (BST)That's great web-side about water...I just wanted to check what does high dielectric loss of water mean.....and now I can't imagine how complicated water molecule is :)
Agnieszka B.
: - Wednesday, May 24, 2006 at 11:48:14 (BST)
I think it is an excellent presentation. concise and easy to use
John Urbas <>
Useful - Tuesday, May 23, 2006 at 18:41:54 (BST)
I've finally worked out what those vapour pressure 4th, 8th and 12th power laws are telling us. See: Cheers, Frank
Frank Grimer <>
- Saturday, May 20, 2006 at 07:45:08 (BST)
ok i need to see if water is magnetic for my science project so try to get back to me
max <>
- Wednesday, May 10, 2006 at 18:41:02 (BST)
WOW, what an amazing compilation of facts and information. The best site about water (or any other topic) that i have ever viewed. This site is a pleasure to browse and throughly researched. Thank you it has been most helpful :)
Claire Mora <>
- Tuesday, May 09, 2006 at 13:08:52 (BST)
I have a question. What intermolecular structures are in pure water? and which one is the strongest?
ashalee <>
- Saturday, May 06, 2006 at 17:18:02 (BST)
Dear Dr. Chaplin, Thank you for creating the most infomative treatment of the subject I have ever seen.  It has answered many unspoken questions. Here, in Puerto Rico, very little seems to be known or understood about water.  With your permission, I would like to spread the news of your website among my friends at the University of Puerto Rico. Again, many many thanks! Yours sincerely,
Neill Edwards <NEILL41@PRTC.NET>
Wednesday April 26, 2006 at 14:31:25 (BST)
I have been treating my own water for quite some time now. So far the most effective method of the several methods tried has been treating tap water firstly with a Brita filter (others would work fine as long as they are charcoal based to alter or inactivate the chlorine). This is then put into my water bottle, which contains various crystals, which have been checked for their various chemical compositions (don't want poisons leeching into my drinking water). This water almost seems to be absorbed on its way down. When doused it is differs from the filtered tap water before contact with the crystals. When watering plants there is a marked difference from this water in that the crystal treated water shows more benefit. A friend began feeding this water to her love birds, the effect of which was her female bird laid an egg (a big suprise). Tap water that does not have the chlorine neutralized will douse poorly even after contact with the crystals. The negative energy from the chlorine must be not only neutralized but the stored signal in the water must also be over written. Much like a tape recording, if erased (filtered) and played back at a higher volume, the recording still leaves an imprint (basis of homeopathy) until the tape is recorded over. At which time there is no longer any evidence of the previous recording. jens ^j^
Jens Kr. Engel <>
Useful - Sunday, April 16, 2006 at 20:44:59 (BST)
I am curious about Ice at very low temperature and high pressure. What are strain rates for metallic ice at 1.76 TPa. Could you build a very cold 100 km ice mountain ?
Useful - Sunday, April 09, 2006 at 06:05:01 (BST)
Dear Professor Chaplin I have just been studying your informative and interesting water website to answer some background fact checking information needed for a future programme. I see you have this statement: 'Water should be drunk little but often throughout the day such that we are never thirsty. It is particularly important to hydrate last thing at night to prepare for the significant loss of water during sleeping and rehydrate first thing in the morning as this is a time when the blood is most viscous and strokes particularly prevalent. We should also drink before, during and after exercise to maintain our level of hydration.' My particular interest is to resolve the question as to whether or not, in a survival or hazardous situation, in a desert environment the optimal water hydration strategy is to drink most of your water ration daily and only retain enough to supress the thirst reflex throughout the daylight hours or, alternatively, as you suggest, drink little but often throughout the day and accept the loss of water due to evaporation, or adopt a mixed strategy according to circumstance and expectations. I wonder, if by posing you this query, you would consider a revision of your observations appropriate? Sincerely David List Senior Researcher Factual and Learning, Science and History PS I have tried to e-mail you, but your system throws my transmission out, presumably it doesn't like a extension!
David List <>
Interesting - Saturday, April 08, 2006 at 00:24:20 (BST)
Martin- Delighted to run into your site. It's not just useful - it's more than useful. It happened when I went to document why I use citrate in my virus purification protocol. I presumed I'd have to write my own Hofmeister series page. Not only do I not have to write it, but it's done better than I could have done it. Better yet, it led me to your main page which is loaded with good stuff. So much so that I've linked it to my biological detergents page. Your site is a great model for what internet science should look like in the near future. I'll spend some time browsing your pages. Keep up the good work. Les Lane
Les Lane - <>
Useful - Monday, April 03, 2006 at 15:54:27 (BST)
I'm curious about the diamagnetic properties of water such as the diamagnetic susceptibility, field strength, etc. Is there a good Hamiltonian or potential function that includes this property? Do you know of any good references?
Martin Williams <> Useful - Monday, March 20, 2006 at 19:53:58 (GMT)
Dear Martin, I'm a medical doctor involved in neural therapy practice, that is, a medicine based on autonomic nervous system regulation by means of 1% procaine hydrochloride injections in ganglia, nerves, skin points, scars, etc. In about 50 % of patients we obtain a total remission of chronic illness in the first session, and neural therapists meet once a year trying to get a scientific explanation for this. I'm preparing a paper on the liquid crystalline organism and neural therapy, on the proton transfer in ordered water columns surrounding collagen molecules, mostly based on Dr Mae-Wan Ho and your work. I would kindly appreciate any help you could give me in finding some data on procaine and water interaction, both for intracellular and extracellular water and for water in the saline solution we use to dilute procaine. I loved your site, and thank you in advance, Jorge Kaczewer
Dr Jorge Kaczewer - <>
Useful - Wednesday, March 08, 2006 at 22:25:54 (GMT)
One fabulous use for water is to power a car! Splitting the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen which are both combusitible gases can be done through resonant electrolysis. Have a look at to learn more.
H2O Engine - <>
Useful - Tuesday, March 07, 2006 at 22:31:52 (GMT)
A small comment. I would like to know what rigorous mathematical results exist, based on quantum mechanics, about the structure of water molecules. I know that physicists dislike such queries from mathematicians, because most think what they do is rigorous. However mathematics has its own laws. I could not find the answer on your great site. Would be grateful for the answer.
Malyshev <>
OK - Wednesday, March 01, 2006 at 08:17:46 (GMT)
Thank you for helping me with some homework. Even though the site appeared to be way above the level of study I am undertaking (A level equivalent) as a mature student. I missed quite a few lessons through ill health at college before xmas so now have to cram it all in! Thank you again for the help..... lots of the headings apeared appropriate for my needs but when I read it, it seemed a different language to me! LOL Angie
Angie <>
Useful - Wednesday, February 15, 2006 at 13:32:46 (GMT)
Congratulations! Thank you very much for your site. I am interested in microwave heating of water. It was very useful.
Ramon Risco <>
OK - Thursday, January 26, 2006 at 20:53:34 (GMT)
Exellent site, only thing I could not find (although one suggesting graph gave a hint) was the density of ice I as function of temperature. This was due a quick research on the intresting everyday anomaly of why household water pipes tend to burst more easily on quck warming than on freezing phase. Say from -25C to -5C you get a lot of burst pipes (like just last week here in Finland). Assumption (one of them) is that pipes do freeze when temperature goes down (bursting some pipes entirely) but most of freezing happens on inner surface of pipe only, leaving a conduit for water and not damaging the pipe (nice explanation of why hot water pipes are more vulnerable was found too). Then when temperature rises the ice expands and bursts the pipe which has been operating OK (not blocked) so far. I managed to find the thermal expansion graph for ice and indeed it's expansion coefficient is positive and on order of 30*10^-6/C which is about double of copper. So it seems like an reasonable explanation.
Useful - Thursday, January 26, 2006 at 14:38:42 (GMT)
Martin replies: This is an interesting possibility. The expansion coefficient of ice, given on the data page is 0.000053 °C-1 (-20 °C) is even higher. There is also a little more on pipes bursting.

When I was a semiconductor engineer, I became aware of what was called 18 Megohm water. This is water which is pure enough to be used in semiconductor fabrication. 18 Megohm water is a violent solvent and will even dissolve some of the quartz flasks which are used to hold it. I was told then that the purification of water, due to this narural solvency, is one of the most difficult chemistry problems. Many years later I became involved with making colloidal silver for healing as a hobby. Making colloidal silver is quite simple however requires pure water since any impurities will precipitate into the solution as contaminants. Good distilled water has a resistance of about 100K ohms, a long way from 18 Megohms. Then in 2001 Florida began using a form of ammonia and chlorine in the public drinking water, chloramine. After this I was never able to buy any distilled water good enough to make colloidal silver again. Apparently the water-ammonia bond is so strong that it requires special processing to purify. If anyone knows of a way to remove ammonia from water please advise. Thanks.
A. E. Neumann, Engineer - <>
OK - Wednesday, January 18, 2006 at 13:43:41 (GMT)

Hi Mr. Chaplin! Congratulations to your beautiful site, - excellent ! Recently I read (despite little QED knowledge) an article by an Italian group using QED to describe water behaviour (eg R Arani, I Bono, E Del Giudice, G Preparata - International Journal of Modern Physics B, 1995, (9), 1816-45). What do you think about using QED to describe the properties of water? with best regards Eugen
Eugen Maier <>
Useful - Tuesday, January 10, 2006 at 13:53:14 (GMT)

The Golden Mean Having studied your "Figure 4. Connectivity map of the water icosahedron." I have come to the conclusion that your conjecture........... =========================================== "The dynamic viscosity varies with the temperature above a baseline temperature, viscosity = (T-T0)-1.637 for H2O and viscosity = (T-T0)-1.623 for D2O; where T0 = 225.4 for H2O and 231.9 for D2O, both these values being close to the respective homogeneous nucleation temperatures. The exponents are close to the golden mean, (1+√5)/2 (= 1.618)." =========================================== .............that the viscosity vs temperature power is the golden mean is more than likely correct. I withdraw my previous suggestion that the power could be the square root of e. I must say that I find it rather spooky that both the Vesica Pisces and the Golden Mean should turn up in something so mystical as water. 8-) Cheers. Frank Grimer Small point - when I ran the above excerpt through my spelling checker I noticed you had written "the the golden mean" instead of *the golden mean*.
Frank Grimer <>
Useful - Tuesday, November 15, 2005 at 15:42:31 (GMT)
Martin replies: Thanks Frank

I just came across your wonderful web site. My interest is in the possibilities for clustered water. Can clustered water be achieved by any way other than a chemical or mechanical process? Thanks for your response.
wagering - <>
OK - Monday, November 14, 2005 at 02:28:19 (GMT)
Martin replies: Water clustering increases as the temperature decreases. Chemical or mechanical processes generally have net declustering effects.

This is a really great site. It has a discussion on almost every structural and molecular property of water. Please keep updating this site. I am sure it will serve as a very useful repository. I have already forwarded the address to many friends, and all of them loved it. Maybe a section on how water affects catalysis of key functional groups in active sites of proteins and controls ligand binding- a fact not always appreciated- could be added. Keep up the good work!
Ashutosh Jogalekar - <>
Interesting - Tuesday, November 08, 2005 at 18:14:46 (GMT)
As producers of pots for plants, we wonder how water react in a ceramic oven. Sure it evaporates, but temperatures raise as high as a 1200 degrees Celsius. So how water reacts? Does it stay waterdamp? Does water break up in OH- and H+? Or else? We notice so few influence of the water evaporating from the still moist clay, some oven-producers make a hole for the damp to escape, other provide no hole. Thanks for the opportunity to put this question.
(author subsequently requested anonymity)
OK - Saturday, November 05, 2005 at 19:22:04 (GMT)
Hi, Thanks for a very interesting site, though it seems to be proving me wrong! :-) Here's why: I used water as an example of non-reduction in my class, claiming that the physical and biological properties of water cannot be shown as arising from its chemical structure. Your site seems to show that such a link can be made in principle, with many caveats and disagreements about the actual mechanisms at work. So I guess I was wrong on the state of the science, though the basic problem of semantic reduction (whether the three descriptions pick out the same thing) remains. Sanjay
Interesting - Thursday, October 27, 2005 at 10:51:40 (BST)
The powers for the temperature vs. viscosity graphs for H2O and D2O are not a whole lot different from the square root of e, the base of natural logarithms. What would the best fit powers be if you had used the actual homogeneous nucleation temperatures?
Frank Grimer <>
Useful - Tuesday, October 25, 2005 at 12:53:26 (BST)
I measured the capacitance of tap water (in a glas tube) as a function of temperature at a measurement-frequency of 3 MHz. I found that capacitance increases as temperature increases 20 to 100 °C. I expected the opposite after reading this nice site. Can anybody explain?
august winkelman <>
Useful - Sunday, October 23, 2005 at 19:38:42 (BST)
If a have a spherical droplet of water suspended in air and when the droplet suppercooled to -10 °C and a speck of hydrophilic dust lands on it, the droplet rapidly freezes all through and the shape remains spherical. is the droplet is cooled to -0.1 °C and a speck of dust lands on it, the surface is quickly covered with a thin crust of ice and the droplet, when is fully frozen would no longer be spherical. I want to know why this phenomenon occurs and what forces I have to take in account. It is something related with heat transfer.
Enrique Guerrero <>
Useful - Thursday, October 20, 2005 at 22:17:12 (BST)
Martin replies: This is due to the much increased rate of freezing when deeply supercooled, causing much smaller average crystal size.

Hi, Martin, Thanks a lot for instant reply about my post. I did read that papers a few times. It is possible. However, my concern is why we can NOT get the clear "image" or structure of this kind of ice-like water. Another interesting thing is that people used STM to image Au(111) for a long time. But, nobody can give a atomic resolution of Au(111)STM image at open circuit potential or something like +200mV (vs.Ag/AgCl in Sat.KCl). I would think probably it is water which play some role at this situation. In our group, we got some images at that condition. Maybe, I can show you some STM images later. It is totally intriguing and quite making trouble with us. Thanks, maohui
Maohui Chen <>
Useful - Wednesday, October 19, 2005 at 23:04:15 (BST)
Hello, Awesome website and sourceful stuff. I have a question about electrofreezing of water. People said water can be frozen under electric field while runnning STM experiments at room temperature. The electric fields is much smaller than that from simulation. Also, the confinement of water may lead the formation of ice-like water. However, nobody can give a direct or clear image of this kind of ice structure at room temperature. Maohui UofG,Canada
Maohui Chen <>
Useful - Wednesday, October 19, 2005 at 18:04:50 (BST)
Martin replies: Try reference [873].

Dear Water Boffs When taking a shower I have been fascinated by the phenomenon of the nylon shower curtain sticking to me and getting in the way once I am wet. This is a serious question. Could someone please explain why this happens? My simplistic theory is that it has something to do with the magnetic properties of water and the electromagnetic properties of the human body. Yours Christine Allen BSc. (Hum Bio & Phil)
Christine Allen <>
Useful - Tuesday, October 18, 2005 at 10:39:03 (BST)
Martin replies: This annoying phenomenon is because of water's cohesive properties, not its magnetic properties. For example, try pulling two panes of wet glass apart (Take care!!). It is impossible. They must be slid apart.

Hello Dr.Chaplin, Thanks for your very informative web pages. Our very small company has developed a device using electromagemtic fields and vortex action to alter the properties of water. It has demonstrated ability to remove contaminants, alter crystal formation of frozen water and affect plant growth rates.We do have some machines in commercial applications treating water prior to use and also wastewater.-with great success. The developer of this device is intuitively guided rather than through scientific education. (he is an expert water diviner also.) Because of this we do not have the scientific wherewithal or scientific proofs/explanations pertaining to our devices to be able to explain the what/where/why/how of what they do. Are you able to assist us in any way? Are you aware of anyone conversant with these matters in Australaisa? If we can give a plausible scientific explanation for the technology it would assist greatly. Thanking you in anticipation. Yours faithfully, Neil Parker, Tauranga,New Zealand. htese our mach c s n ele
neil parker <>
Useful - Tuesday, October 11, 2005 at 22:38:43 (BST)
I am from Peru. Next year I am going to visit London to find university to study. I think I'll check this one too.
Useful - Monday, October 10, 2005 at 17:24:06 (BST)
Dear Dr. Martin, Many thanks for the prompt response. I have one more question: Compared with the Magnetic descaling devices, what is your opinion towards the electronic descaling ? Which produces a unique square wave current that sweeps all the frequency responses from 1000 to 12000 Hz at a rate of 20 times a second Thank you in advance and Best Regards! Ir.FredaLee
FredaLee <>
Useful - Tuesday, September 27, 2005 at 04:17:43 (BST)
Martin replies: Some square wave devices seem to work in some geographical areas. It is best to check for local users. see also the page on magnetic descaling.

Dear Dr. Martin, I am a Woman Engineer working in the field of environmental friendly water treatment and very interested in the water properties. Your web site is really helpful for me in in studding the water, especially the theory of water clustering. Would you please to tell me any relationship between the solvent power of water and it's structure of cluster. Thank you in advance and Best Regards! Ir. FredaLee
FredaLee <>
Interesting - Monday, September 26, 2005 at 11:33:56 (BST)
Martin replies: It depends on the solute and the cause of the clustering. Water generally has stronger solvent power at higher temperatures when there is less natural clustering. See also anomaly 33.

Many thanks to you for your website. Hope you could update and add the contents frequently. Luo
Yu-Ran Luo <>
Interesting - Thursday, September 22, 2005 at 22:54:32 (BST)
Does anyone one know where I can purchase "Turkish or Sufi or any kind of bioavailable water" for my home? There are so many scams. Peace Sal
Sally <>
OK - Thursday, September 22, 2005 at 07:52:33 (BST)
This site is interesting and very informative. Keep up the good work.
Useful - Saturday, September 17, 2005 at 12:20:32 (BST)
Thanks for this resource. I enjoyed browsing your site.
Interesting - Saturday, September 17, 2005 at 12:17:54 (BST)
Just to say many thanks for such a helpful and informative site.
Martin Smith <>
Useful - Friday, September 09, 2005 at 21:55:17 (BST)
Your site is an absolutely fabulous resource for my son (a 14 yr old budding biologist) and for me (a curious layman). I appreciate the "easier introductions" but also have been plowing through the technical stuff. I am always amazed at the complexity and even controversy underlying the science of everyday physical phenomena.
Interesting - Friday, September 09, 2005 at 16:49:43 (BST)
Excellent site. I wish there were more sites like this on other subjects. Great work
Chris Kennedy <>
Useful - Monday, September 05, 2005 at 16:45:27 (BST)
I am a tanner of leather and I believe that water-dipolar chemical structures such as water will form with ordinary surfactants, is the nature of the stabilizing thermodynamic forces behind helical coil polymers such as collagen and DNA and just as well for shoe-leather. What sources do you recomend I look into in order to start to understand this massive H-bonding coperative phenomenon that probably is the explaning theory for my work, which unfortunately is neither understood or even acceptable in my trade.
David Rabinovich <>
Interesting - Wednesday, August 24, 2005 at 23:05:56 (BST)
Though this site is an extremely interesting ressource, I am missing links to physical properties in numerical format (i.e. optical dispersion)
Useful - Tuesday, August 16, 2005 at 20:24:46 (BST)
A very well presented and informative site, keep up the good work!
Neill Tucker
Useful - Tuesday, August 09, 2005 at 17:39:24 (BST)
I found everything that I wanted to know about water, and then some! Great site.
Olux A. <>
Interesting - Thursday, July 14, 2005 at 17:57:26 (BST)
I love this page please keep on the good work
imo aba maga - <>
OK - Wednesday, June 29, 2005 at 21:00:16 (BST)
I have found that adding a small quantity of penta water to ordinary tap water alters the "weight and feel" of it after 20 minutes or so - this is a kitchen sink experiment - I assume the tap water is changing structure? Does anyone know how/how much to add to a garden pond and what the effects might be?
geraldine <>
Interesting - Wednesday, June 22, 2005 at 12:35:57 (BST)
Martin replies: I believe you need enough to keep the fish wet.

Best people Best site
oleg - <>
OK - Saturday, June 04, 2005 at 20:02:43 (BST)
This site reminds me of my teacher's manner that is visible on my site.
Ted - <>
OK - Friday, June 03, 2005 at 09:20:56 (BST)
This is a fantastic resource - and it's really refreshing to see a site written by an expert who is not afraid to address such controversies as homeopathy. I came across it while writing about the film "What the Bleep", which homes in on the claims of Dr Emoto that water can be influenced by thoughts (!), and offers as evidence some pictures of ice crystals. This site shows that the weirdness of water is much more profound than this. Ironically, many of the anomalies of water seem to be due to hydrogen bonds, which themselves are affected by quantum vacuum effects - precisely the kind of weird phenomena the makers of What the Bleep are so keen to talk about. What a shame they didn't take the opportunity to spread the word about them.
Robert Matthews <>
Useful - Wednesday, June 01, 2005 at 18:11:35 (BST)
Hi Martin, Whatever happened to the page I teach Internet Programming, and have had a link to the page so that students could see the water molecules dangling from the cursor. But now the link appears to be broken. Cheers, Don
Don Watson <>
Interesting - Friday, May 20, 2005 at 01:49:21 (BST)
Martin replies: I took it out as readers were confused by the cartoon; I have put it back for you here.

Can you explain an observation, please? When water and methanol are mixed, the mixture warms up, apparently due to hydrogen bonding but water and acetonitrile cool when mixed. Is this disruption of intra-water hydrogen bonds? Douglas Hedley
Douglas hedley <>
Interesting - Tuesday, May 17, 2005 at 15:24:52 (BST)
Martin replies: Enthalpy changes are complex, involving both hydrogen bonding and dispersion effects. It appears that acetonitrile disrupts water's hydrogen bonding to a greater extent than methanol but gains less from its interactions with water.

Excellent site and certainly no curate's egg (more like the 'fertile' variety). It is refreshing to see this kind of intense dedication to such an important subject. Assuming that your guest book also serves the role as discussion forum, here is a Query (candle) for ongoing consideration: There seems to be anecdotal or loose evidence connecting the physical properties of: 1) expansion on freezing 2) diamagnetism 3) electrical conductivity & perhaps even eventual superconductivity (local or bulk), especially at elevated pressure. Helium, bismuth, and water are partial examples for what could possibly be an underlying tendency towards these traits, derived from nanostructure, one might surmise. ----------------------------------------------------------------- In trying to find a reference for the electrical conductivity of 4 degree water, the following carefully researched article and charts appears to negate the possibility of anything unusual in water: the conductivity of water rises steadily, though not linearly from 0 to 100 °C, even though the differential change is greatest at lower temperatures. However, no real effort seems to have been made to look for small variations around 4 degrees, nor to look at the detailed effects of applied pressure on electrical conductivity. I wonder if you know of any contrary or more detailed evidence than this study provides - especially where the readings were taken at very close intervals - perhaps in fractional degrees around the important 4 degree mark? Regards, Jones Beene
Jones Beene <>
Useful - Tuesday, May 10, 2005 at 15:36:58 (BST)
Excellent work - thank you for a very informative site!
R. Scott - <>
Useful - Tuesday, April 26, 2005 at 01:16:28 (BST)
Thanks for a very interesting and useful site. I am a cancer research scientist. Based on your research and theory, I think that the level of clustered water may be different between normal cell and malignant cell. I would like to use clustered water for cancer prevention research. I hope to collaborate with you in the future.
Zhi Y. Wang -<>
: - Tuesday, April 19, 2005 at 23:30:43 (BST)
Martin replies: Yes, it does seem that cancer cells have less clustered water.

Thanks, your site is very popular among my Scandinavian colleges. There is a lot of discussions here in Sweden.
Axel - <>
OK - Monday, April 18, 2005 at 19:36:13 (BST)
This site perhaps is the most comprehensive and most interesting one on water molecular structure and properties. Keep up the good work! Sri
Subramania I. Sritharan - <>
Useful - Monday, April 11, 2005 at 17:37:18 (BST)
Thank you for this site it is very interesting.
Najla Ben Ameur <>
OK - Thursday, March 31, 2005 at 21:56:45 (BST)
This is an awesome resource. Thanks for your efforts.
Colin Wraight <> Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics University of Illinois
Useful - Wednesday, March 16, 2005 at 02:41:12 (GMT)
Dear Martin Chaplin I am not a specialist, but from a biochemist point of view it is very enlightning and tantalizing - Thank you Best regards Philip Oppenheim
Philip Oppenheim <>
Useful - Friday, March 04, 2005 at 19:15:26 (GMT)
You may be interested to know that, since, and possibly before, the Guardian Bad Science Articles on Penta, Trading Standards at Westminster, Kensington and Chelsea, and, particularly Surrey County Council are looking into Penta's version of DHMO. I am including your pages in my own report to Surrey, who are investigating on Kensington's as well as their own behalf. Love and peace.
David Greig <>
Useful - Tuesday, March 01, 2005 at 11:33:47 (GMT)
Martin replies: I have edited this to remove an unsubstantiated statement. The Guardian does not appear to have any 'good science' on offer here.
Hi, Dr. Chaplin, Thanks for the fantastic and profound knowledge of water! Is it published as a book? Can we consider N-alkylpyridinium cations and N, N'-dialkylimidazolium cations as chaotropic ions? They are large size ions. Is BF4 anion chaotrope as well? Our study seems to indicate BF4 ions denature proteins. In terms of the equilibrium of ES <--> CS for proteins, is there an equilibrium constant available for a specific protein or enzyme? Thank you so much in advance!
Hua Zhao <>
Useful - Wednesday, February 23, 2005 at 15:52:07 (GMT)
Hello Martin, thanks again for a most brilliant site in terms of reference to my studies in art/science, also for your kindness in creating a link to my website. If you or any of your followers would like to collaborate in any future sci/art projects drop me a line at or visit Cheers and best wishes K.S.Murray
Keith Stuart Murray <>
Interesting - Friday, February 18, 2005 at 15:50:17 (GMT)
Thanks for this excellent site, with a wealth of fascinating information. I will provide a link to it in my online critical book on homeopathy. The alleged potency effect in homeopathy is of course one of the principal reasons why it is widely rejected by critics. Your assessment of the present position of homeopathy is very fair and one I agree with.
Anthony Campbell - <>
Useful - Thursday, February 17, 2005 at 13:14:50 (GMT)
Dear Dr. Martin Chaplin, Thank you for the great site. It help my graduate study a lot. I am graduate student at North Carolina State University, USA. My research topic is the interaction between water and wood fiber (cellulose fiber). As far as I know, DSC is only (?) method to characterize the amount of bound water (either freezing or non-freezing / both) based on the freezing point depression. NMR has also been used to determine non-freezing bound water by experimental free-induction-decay based on the molecular dynamics of the water molecule. Is there any other method to characterize/visualize the amount of bound water(quantitatively and/or qualitively)? If you can give me a hint, it will be very helpful for my further study. I always appreciate your great site. Thank you. Sunkyu Park
Sunkyu Park <>
Useful - Thursday, February 17, 2005 at 03:07:51 (GMT)
Martin replies: Can anyone provide a suitable methodology?
This site is great. I'm also using your interview in National Geographic to cite for my research report of Science,Fair
Useful - Wednesday, January 19, 2005 at 21:35:58 (GMT)
A truly comprehensive website that serves as a great starting point for digging deeper into the effects of water. I especially enjoyed the section on the interactions of PEG and water. This brought up the following question: is the entropy of water - enthalpy of hydrogen bonding balance also the basis of the strong temperature dependence for the phase behavior of polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide- polyethylene oxide triblock copolymers? Do you know of any pertinent references? Thanks again for putting together this fantastic web site.
Chris Steinbeck <>
Useful - Tuesday, January 11, 2005 at 10:14:34 (GMT)
Martin replies: The poloxamer gel dissociation process can be considered similar to the protein unfolding process given here.
Thanks for your work done with this bunch of information free for everyone to know about. Lets try to get the best out of knowledge. This is also a non comercial but also global invitation to visit us behind c u folx T
tom - <>
: - Wednesday, January 05, 2005 at 01:27:01 (GMT)
I found your site interesting and offer my site as an outlook into an alternate perspective into the geometrical structure of the Platonic Solids you have highlighted on your web site. I started with the assumption that parts of the bible are a detailed description of the organization of creation. This lead to a view of there being 12 fundamental structures of that creation, with the Platonic solids simply being not fundamentals but compounds.
Robert Conroy - <>
Useful - Monday, December 27, 2004 at 16:54:18 (GMT)
I have gone thru some of the topics of water. I found all the information extremely useful and interesting. I wish you good luck for the future. I also like to see similar kind of comprehensive information on DNA and various drugs. thank you
Useful - Wednesday, December 22, 2004 at 09:45:49 (GMT)
Everything that you wanted to know about water, and then some! Great site.
A. Zamora -
OK - Tuesday, December 21, 2004 at 20:23:46 (GMT)
I would like to bring your attention to our recent J. the American Chemical Society communication on the gas phase hydration of benzene cation: "Stepwise hydration, and multi-body deprotonation with steep negative temperature dependence, in the Benzene·+ - water system", Y. Ibrahim, E. Alsharaeh, K. Dias, M. Meot-Ner and M. S. El-Shall, J. American Chem. Soc. 126, 12766 (2004). Abstract
Samy El-Shall - <>
Useful - Tuesday, November 30, 2004 at 15:37:21 (GMT)
Here is the 2000 year old question: I have seen farmers being devasted with lack of rainfall here in Thailand. What is so unusual about it is that watering plants with ordinary tap water or river water whether it be on potted plants or in the field, the effects on plant growth is not the same. Rain water always makes plant grow faster, germinate faster, etc. than tap water or water from river. So what makes rain water so great? I know there are trace amounts of Methyl Sulfonyl Methane in water, but I think that is not the major reason. I think the water structure are smaller.
Some years ago, I remember reading some German scientists got some water from a deep well caves. They measured the water density. What is so surprising is the water's density was about 0.80. In other words, the density of cave water was 20% of ordinary water! How could that be? Does that have to do with hydrophobic minerals or is it some form of dissolved silicates from the caves that causes the water density to be below normal? Since it was several years ago, I do not have the papers with me. Your answers will be greatly appreciated!
parhatsathid nabadalung <>
OK - Saturday, November 27, 2004 at 10:40:54 (GMT)
Martin replies: Maybe one should ask what is inhibitory about tap or river water; there is no proof for smaller water clusters. I do not believe the density value. Does anyone have a reference to the paper?
Hi Martin. Have you read the Smith et al article, "Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water", in Science, 2004-10-29, v. 306, pp. 851 - 853? How might this bear (if at all) on the icosahedral theory? Would it possibly mean that when water tetrahedra assemble, at least one bond in the greater structure is substantially weaker than the others (at any instant of observation)? John
John Michael Williams <>
OK - Wednesday, November 10, 2004 at 05:58:17 (GMT)
Martin replies: Although the data could be so interpreted , it is also possible that whole and partial, open and collapsed, icosahedra are present. As the surface to volume ratio of these relatively small clusters is large, the broken hydrogen bonding suggested can be accomodated on the surface of fully tetrahedrally hydrogen bonded clusters.
Dear Prof. Chaplin, I found your site very interesting and usefull. Thank you for it. Some days ago Dr. Benveniste, who first said that water has a "memory", died in France. I think that your site is a best one to try to understand the experiments he did. I wanted to ask you if you have all this material in a pdf document? It'll be great to download it. Thank you again. Best wishes, José Machado Instituto de Biotecnología de las Plantas Carretera a Camajuaní Km. 5 1/2, Santa Clara, V.C., Cuba
Jose Machado
Useful - Monday, October 25, 2004 at 17:47:23 (BST)
Martin replies: Sorry there is no pdf. Dr Beneveniste will be remembered as a charming and sincere scientist.
Dear Martin, I have used you site for several years to start my Part 1 Physical Chemistry course. I do not usually like WEB material as it will not have been edited and can be messy. Your site is an excellent exception, it is both basic and advanced in content. I also talk about methane hydrates in my Part 1 course. Best wishes G Brenton
G Brenton <>
Useful - Monday, October 11, 2004 at 12:54:29 (BST)
The information I found on this site was very useful for me.
Jan -
Interesting - Saturday, September 25, 2004 at 09:06:28 (BST)
Very, very usefull place to find excellent stuff of H2O ! Greetings from the Baltic Coast ...
Useful - Tuesday, September 21, 2004 at 07:53:02 (BST)
Dear Prof. Chaplin, Your site is very usefull even for specialists. Thanks a lot for your huge job! Some of the aspects of our work may be will be interesting for your. We studied elastic properties of different crystalline and amorphous phases of H2O and DvO ices ( see e.g. Phys.Rev B v64 (2001)94205, JETP Letters, v78 (2003)488) See also several large chapters about water in our recent book: "New Kinds of Phase Transitions: Transformations in Disordered Substances", Eds: V.V. Brazhkin et al NATO Science, Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry – Vol. 81, Kluver Academic Publishers, Netherlands, 2002 Sorry for the disturb, could you advice me some key refs. or places in your site concerning attempts to obtain low-density water and about its viscosity. Could you also advice us where can we find the information about anabiosis and associated aspects of high-viscosity water solutions. Thank you in advance Prof. V. Brazhkin
Vadim Brazhkin <>
Useful - Friday, September 10, 2004 at 07:38:51 (BST)
I found the information very useful. Thanks to the webmaster.
Useful - Friday, August 13, 2004 at 15:32:40 (BST)
Just surfed in and found this really interesting place here. A lot of good stuff for everybody. Go on like this and i will surely visit your site again sometime.
suzi - <>
OK - Friday, August 13, 2004 at 09:44:24 (BST)
Great job you did! Thanks a lot for your endeavor for correct understanding of water. One blur, too difficult for non-professional person to understand! Anyhow, it's been great pleasure to let ignorant people taste variety of water feature through your masterpiece. Thanks a lot again!
Johnson You - <>
Useful - Tuesday, August 03, 2004 at 07:07:41 (BST)
Great site. I have been helping somebody with a science project and the information presented was fantastic. Many thanks.
A Bowen - <>
Interesting - Wednesday, July 28, 2004 at 20:34:14 (BST)
Prof Chaplin, As a materials scientist working on water structure I must say that your website is absolutely extraordinarily accurate and useful, and technically superb.It should be nominated for some sort of award for clarity and utility!!. I was impressed also by your neutral and scientific attitude on the homeopathy-related matters. You will see in my forthcoming paper (Mat. Research Innov. ,in press) how a materials science perspective assembles many of the veritable zoo of your possible molecules into the proper use of the term "structure of water" or any condensed matter phase -viz. their distribution in 3-D. Thank you for your tour-de-force of value to us all. Rustum Roy
Prof. Rustum Roy - <>
OK - Sunday, July 25, 2004 at 22:38:34 (BST)
Dr.Chaplin Your work on water structure and behaviour is very helpful, interesting and stimulating. I am interested to examine non-ionic kosmotropes on the activity of proteases. You have list in the section "Kosmotropes & Chaotropes" of six organic compounds, particularly proline. Do you have references about proline effects as a kosmotrope. Is it in D or L from? Thank for your attention.
Luiz Juliano <>
OK - Sunday, July 25, 2004 at 12:51:43 (BST)
very informative website, i'm a french student and i'm very enjoyed by your work ! thank's kimy
Sonnerie -<>
Useful - Tuesday, July 20, 2004 at 00:21:14 (BST)
Could you sent to me a copy from this book. Dr Shaban Ali Elroby Chemistry department-Faculty of science Cairo university-Beniseuf branch.Beniseuf-EGYPT
Elroby <>
OK - Thursday, July 15, 2004 at 10:50:05 (BST)
Martin replies: Sorry there is no book. I try to keep this site moving with the science.
Hi, I've solved the vapour powers riddle. 8-)
Useful - Monday, July 12, 2004 at 09:14:43 (BST)
Could you PLEASE tell me how much 1 litre of normal tap water weighs.
Phil <>
Hard going - Tuesday, July 06, 2004 at 09:52:09 (BST)
Martin replies: It depends on where the tap is, but it will be about one kilogram. For pure water densities see my data page.
Could you provide some information on how to decompose H2O and combustion of oxygen hydrogen chemical thermal electrical
asoka <>
Interesting - Sunday, July 04, 2004 at 09:42:43 (BST)
I would like to thanks all for providing useful information.
Sanjay Choudhary - <>
Useful - Saturday, July 03, 2004 at 10:21:14 (BST)
Dear Prof. Chaplin, Excellent site! Thank you very much for providing this quite comprehensive site about the properties of water. It saves me a lot of time. Is it possible to download the entire document in html or pdf format in order to install it locally? Andreas Becker
Andreas Becker <>
Useful - Monday, June 21, 2004 at 19:39:31 (BST)
Superb site! Apologies if this phenomenon is already mentioned and I haven't found it here, but I ran into some very nice photos and QuickTime movies of thrown boiling water breaking up into ice fog at Antarctic temperatures so that very little reaches the ground. The standard explanations don't seem so good, and I'm wondering if Mpemba effect is involved as well as easy breakup and rapid evaporation due to the water's starting temperature.
Ray Girvan - <>
Interesting - Wednesday, June 09, 2004 at 02:08:22 (BST)
My personal interest in the molecular mechanisms of water is to obtain an overview of the mechanism(s) whereby "kosmotropic" polysaccharides like trehalose induce increased stability and resistance to denaturation of globular proteins (especially pharmaceuticals) in solution. So most of this detailed view of water behavior is beyond my needs. However, this information is well-organized and clearly put, and is interesting and easy (for a physical chemistry treatise) to read. My kudos to the author for disseminating good science.
Doug Frazier <>
Interesting - Tuesday, June 08, 2004 at 00:59:19 (BST)
Good job on the site :)
Mark - <>
Interesting - Sunday, May 23, 2004 at 08:31:50 (BST)
Thank you for a very informative site. It is a helpful reference to aid students. It would be helpful if Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR/MRI) effects on water in strong magnetic fields were included and perhaps the spins animated.
Adrian E. Popa - <>
Useful - Saturday, May 22, 2004 at 06:22:18 (BST)
I thank you very much for this amazing wealth of knowledge. i have learnd plenty about the properties of water.
zackT - <>
Interesting - Thursday, May 13, 2004 at 17:36:23 (BST)
We in our company want to calculate the Convective coeffieicent of heavy water. I hope you will send us the details of how to calculate the properties such as density, viscosity, heat transfer coefficient, with respect to different pressures and temperatures. Thanking you, With regards,
D.Kumara Raja- <>
Simplistic - Sunday, May 09, 2004 at 11:50:42 (BST)
Fantastic site! But unless I missed it is there any info available on water that is held under a negative pressure?
Ted Erikson. swimmer - <>
Useful - Wednesday, May 05, 2004 at 19:47:11 (BST)
Martin replies: It is mentioned a few times; in anomalies 7, 11, 12 and 34 and the phase diagram.

Terrific site. My only suggestion is to consider posting stills of the 3-D structures, and to have the interactive structures be accessible by clicking on the stills. For those of us with Apple computers, OS X and beyond, none of the plug-ins work.
Patricia Springsteen
Useful - Monday, April 26, 2004 at 17:47:26 (BST)
This site reminds me of my teacher's manner that is visible on my site. Go ahead!
Valentin Chirosca - <>
Useful - Wednesday, April 21, 2004 at 11:17:46 (BST)
Superb site, well laid out articles presented in an easy to read form with excellent cross referencing. Tom Shaw ex South Bank Poly BSc Food Science. Graduated 1973
Tom Shaw <>
Useful - Tuesday, April 20, 2004 at 21:53:02 (BST)
Dear Prof. Chaplin, I am greatly impressed by the amount of work you have placed in a consolidated way. The site is simply superb, elegant, fantastic and more so it can be useful to many workers. You have covered several aspects in detail but still brief with all the references. My humble congratulations for the excellent work. It provides a good motivation to other experts to prepare similar sites in their individual areas of expertise. The interesting and fascinating thing I noticed about your site is that you take pains to update the same rather quite frequently. This simply shows your interest in providing latest and correct information to the readers. Simply Great Work. May God Bless you a Long and Healthy Life in the service of mankind. Thanks again, Sincerely yours, Prof. RP Wadhwa PS. Water Therapy seems to have done wonders in many cases. I wonder if it has to do with absorption of hydrocolloids or is there still something else? I would appreciate your comments.
Prof. R. P. Wadhwa <>
Interesting - Saturday, April 10, 2004 at 18:54:58 (BST)
Martin replies: Sufficient (but not to excess) hydration is healthy. Hydrocolloids can have additional health benefits.
Dear Prof Chaplin. I was fascinated to learn about the Mpemba effect (why hot water may freeze faster than cold) and its likely explanation in terms of the high-temperature breakdown of water molecule clusters. This prompts some questions in relation to declustered water and its supposed - but unsubstantiated - health benefits. Am I right in thinking that declustered drinking water - of which there are many expensive brands on the market - may more easily be obtained simply by warming ordinary water just before drinking? If so, what (roughly) is the minimum water temperature necessary to break down the water molecule clusters? Presumably hot drinks like tea and coffee will comprise declustered water and thus offer the same health effects. Or does such heat-declustered water too rapidly revert to its clustered form once imbibed and cooled down to body temperature?
Joe Olmi <>
Interesting - Saturday, April 03, 2004 at 21:21:59 (BST)
Martin replies: There are many ways of breaking the hydrogen bonds (declustering) including heating the water, which has a small effect at all temperatures. As we cannot unambiguously determine the changes in the (cluster-scale) structuring of the water, we do not know how long such effects may persist (theoretical computer modeling indicates the timescale is far less than a second, whereas some practical phenomena indicate that it may be far longer).
Dear Martin, I have just recently started work to understand and model acoustic attenuation in gas mixtures containing water vapor. So, I can say I'm a novice. My question is, To what degree are the Lennard-Jones parameters obtained for the liquid state "preserved" in the vapor state, given its polar character? Thanks, -Andi
Andi Petculescu <>
Useful - Friday, March 26, 2004 at 00:40:48 (GMT)
Martin replies: Lennard-Jones parameters are empirical, but there is not expected to be any significant change from liquid to vapor. Including the atomic charges should account for the polar character.
I am currently working on a study of handicap ramps in the city. I am very interested in the freeze rate of water at atmospheric pressure. I realize the this is a complicated subject but I can't seem to find a formula for this. If you could help it would greatly be appreciated. Mark E. Peterson, P.E.
Mark Peterson, P.E. <>
Useful - Thursday, March 25, 2004 at 17:27:01 (GMT)
Martin replies: There are many unknowns, such as wind speed/direction, but maybe a reader can help.
Prof. Chaplin, your work is simply incredibly bright, didactic and interesting. Great job!!! I'm a doctor and I'm working with Stewart's approach on acid-base disorders. I'd like, if possible, more direct points about this important theme. We need a unequivocal confirmation that dissolved ions really alter hydrogen ion concentration since this is the principal assumption of Stewart's theory. Thank you very much for all. Carlos Pompilio
Carlos E Pompilio <>
Useful - Thursday, March 18, 2004 at 22:43:43 (GMT)
Martin replies: It is clear that the necessity for electrical neutrality overrides other considerations and can control pH under some in vivo circumstances.
I would like to receive more news concerning magnetic effects on water and how can we use these effects to remove substances from it. Is there any way to turn polluted water into potable water by magnetic ways?
MArcio Sainsonas <>
Useful - Thursday, March 18, 2004 at 14:27:18 (GMT)
Martin replies: The answer to your question is 'not at present, nor likely at the present level of understanding'.
My apologies for not noticing I needed to click on to "cached" after I reached the search sites in order to get all references to a named individual. Glad to see you've now updated your listed second critical point parameters to include those estimated by Yamada, et. al. mentioned in [419].
John A. White <>
Useful - Wednesday, March 10, 2004 at 22:09:31 (GMT)
A very useful site, except I was surprised to see no mention of work on the 2nd critical point of water by Masako Yamada, et. al., Physical Review Letters, 88: 195701 (2002). Also, other relevant references to H. E. Stanley and coworkers are scanty, even though they have published many papers in recent years about properties of water.
John A. White <>
Useful - Thursday, March 04, 2004 at 17:06:10 (GMT)
Martin replies: I am surprised by this comment as I refer to 9 papers from Professor Stanley's group (11, 16, 25, 45, 53, 54, 402, 419, 493) including one subsequent to his and Yamada's Physical Review Letters, paper (419) that makes reference to it. I welcome advice on which papers should be included and will always try to include the most relevant and important papers.
Very interesting. Out here in Las Vegas the water is very hard so a lot of people have filtration and water softeners.
Charles -
Interesting - Saturday, February 28, 2004 at 08:36:03 (GMT)
Great, elegant, professional, useful, simply superb! It was big help for me and my work. Thanks. Greetings
Vladimir Prsic <>
Useful - Wednesday, February 25, 2004 at 01:25:33 (GMT)
everything about H2O...
gentian <>
OK - Monday, February 16, 2004 at 11:40:23 (GMT)
for the one how work with water Our responsibility as "parents" I do see myself as one I can sense that you are on and probably there are more, who recognize the great advancement emanating from philosophy, where lack of knowledge is a source of satisfaction, that great advancement that is the fruit of freedom of thought, is to announce the value of that freedom, to teach that doubt and criticism are not causes for fear, but for happiness and discussion, and demand this freedom, as our responsibility to our colleagues, and to generations to come. I thank you very much for the web site, It's more than OK for me. Eran
Eran Gabbai <>

OK - Tuesday, February 10, 2004 at 13:06:25 (GMT)
One word: "Wonderful"
J.-P. Rivera - <>
Useful - Friday, February 06, 2004 at 16:29:11 (GMT)
Excellent, comprehensive overview on the many aspects of water. Well organized and well referenced. It has been my experience that Brits typically write some of the best science reference material. (I hope your censorship policy does not include gratuitous advertisements for this website) Cheers, Joe
Grateful American scientist
Useful - Friday, January 30, 2004 at 15:56:46 (GMT)
I just came across your wonderful web site. My interest is in the possibilities for clustered water. Can clustered water be achieved by any way other than a chemical or mechanical process? Thanks for your response.
doug orth <>
Useful - Saturday, January 24, 2004 at 02:30:08 (GMT)
I read an extract of Professor Madelaine Ennis's ( of Queens University, Belfast)recent work which gives some credibility to that of Benveniste's paper in (Nature, 1988) concerning extreme dilution effects in water. I am puzzled that no mention is made in the Ennis extract regarding whether the control water was or was not vigorously shaken, since the mechanical action might impart sufficient energy to this delicate system, to change the microstructure of the water. Was shaken water used as a control?? Andrew Ciesielski.
Andrew Ciesielski <>
Useful - Wednesday, January 21, 2004 at 06:24:38 (GMT)
This site on water is fantastic! I ran into it as I was beginning to write a review chapter on water and solids mobility in foods and have been a faithful site visitor ever since! Thanks Martin for all your hard work to make your site an incredible resource! Please keep up that GREAT work!
Shelly J. Schmidt <>
Useful - Thursday, January 15, 2004 at 15:49:07 (GMT)
just surfed in..good work
hanni - <>
OK - Tuesday, January 13, 2004 at 09:02:23 (GMT)
Many thanks for this useful and compact information around the earth's compound number 1: WATER (I'm also teaching foodstuff chemistry). Hartmut
Hartmut Inselsbacher
Useful - Saturday, January 10, 2004 at 12:46:10 (GMT)

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