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Water Site Visitor's Book Archive 2000-2003

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Thank you very much. May the web be full of compendia just like this! A small question/suggestion: is there a site with experiments and demonstrations one can do at home? Maybe you could suggest such demonstrations through your text? Thank you again!
Omer Moussaffi <>
Useful - Saturday, November 29, 2003 at 14:27:36 (GMT)
Excellent overview of possibly the most amazing substance in the universe. One suggestion: a section for kids that puts across some of the ideas and concepts in an easy-to-understand way. Key things that kids always ask (possibly due to standard school curriculum homework assignments): why does an ice cube melt faster in fresh water than in salt water? why does hot water freeze faster than cold water? (your answer is excellent, but too hard for the average kid to understand) where does the energy come from when water freezes and expands? In other words: I'm suggesting a sort of "Easy-to-Understand Questions & Answers" section.
Barry Shell -
Useful - Tuesday, November 25, 2003 at 19:42:57 (GMT)
Martin replies: A good suggestion. In the meanwhile, I can direct FAQ seekers to your site, just enter 'water' in the 'search' box.
You have created an amazing site. Have spent hours scanning it and will come back again. One omission is the Costa Rebeiro effect, what's the latest on this ?
Bob Davies
Interesting - Sunday, November 23, 2003 at 00:33:46 (GMT)
Martin replies: This thermodielectric effect is overviewed [551] but does not seem to be a particularly strange property specific to water/ice.
very compliments for all of the work about this important and so much intresting part of chemistry. I hope you will go on in this way of studies.
mattia tenuta - student of chemistry at university of calabria (italy)<>
Useful - Tuesday, November 11, 2003 at 19:35:03 (GMT)
Dear Martin, I found your website to be an excellent compendium of information on water. I consult it regularly. Thank you.
Bruno Tomberli <>
Useful - Tuesday, November 11, 2003 at 16:12:06 (GMT)
I have been searching for a synthetic filter media/screen that will support and maintain water droplets (beads) on the outlet surface of the media using hydrostatic pressure only. Any ideas? Thank you for a useful and informative site.
Chris Costa <>
Useful - Friday, November 07, 2003 at 21:35:07 (GMT)
I am writtng a proposal about water model, and this site can be an important resource. Martin, Thanks a lot!
Useful - Friday, November 07, 2003 at 05:05:34 (GMT)
I am amazed at the content and clarity of this site. This site has quickly become an invaluable resource for my studies. Thank you for the time and effort you've all put in. Alex.
Alexander S Richards <>
Useful - Friday, October 31, 2003 at 23:37:55 (GMT)
Came in to look for one item and have been back often to discover others. Well done, very broad, it has inspired me to write my stuff for the web.
Ted Lamont - <>
Useful - Tuesday, October 28, 2003 at 05:26:16 (GMT)
I am a magnet therapist and recommending magneting water to my patients for better it is a greatful that u have put of lots of efforts to make the public aware of magnetised water.By providing the knowledge of magnetic water to all one can help to build up a healthier and happier nation with less sufferings. in future all the informations pertaining to the magnetic water may please be emailed me to enrich my knowledge. thanks once again for your hard efforts.
Dr.Kamaljit Singh M.D.(A.M.),Ph.d <>
Useful - Sunday, September 14, 2003 at 13:37:21 (BST)
An excellent summary of the unusual physical and chemical properties of water. You can supplement this with chapters on heavy water and tritiated water, the Derjaguin controversy of a new form of water, the Benveniste story and homeopathy, the difficulties in purifying water etc. Thank you again, Zahir
Sheik Zahir <>
Useful - Sunday, August 24, 2003 at 15:51:49 (BST)
Martin replies: Some of the Benveniste story is given as is the Derjaguin controversy and some heavy water data.
forms of water
rollyreyes <>
Useful - Monday, August 18, 2003 at 01:36:55 (BST)
Thank you for sharing this material. I found it useful for teaching and research purposes. Pilar Buera
Pilar Buera <>
Interesting - Wednesday, August 13, 2003 at 15:52:02 (BST)
Dear Mr. Chaplin... This is, probably, the best site about WATER in the world. Always up-to-date. Excellent site! N. Antunes - S. Paulo - Brasil
Nelson M. Antunes - <nelsonmaf @>
Useful - Monday, August 11, 2003 at 16:37:56 (BST)
*lol*, your website sucks!!! :-D
Paul Eder
Waste of time - Tuesday, August 05, 2003 at 16:08:32 (BST)
Martin replies: Rather negative! It is always nice to know why?
I need to know the electrical resistivity of water resistivity. Can you help? Kwasi
Kwasi Akrobotu <>
Interesting - Tuesday, August 05, 2003 at 09:36:54 (BST)
Martin replies: The resistivity is the reciprocal of the conductivity (18 Mohm cm).
Water is totally in this site. I like to tell nothing more than that
nirmalrpathak <>
OK - Friday, August 01, 2003 at 23:15:04 (BST)
Dear Sir Fantastic site and I would like to think there is a book made with all the information. Can you please advise me. Thanks a lot Roy
Roy Irvine <>
Useful - Thursday, July 24, 2003 at 18:27:13 (BST)
Martin replies: There are no plans as I wish it to be always up to date.
Incredibly vast terrain of scientific work. A very useful well of information. Thank you for the answers I was able to find. Determination of pKa by Capillary Electrophoresis and the effects of high voltage. (water orientation and destructuralisation).
Oby Debs <>
Useful - Wednesday, July 23, 2003 at 22:26:27 (BST)
Dear Dr. Chaplin: Wonderful resource - Thank you for sharing your research. Allan Pither, University of Florida
Allan W Pither - <>
Useful - Tuesday, June 24, 2003 at 13:19:28 (BST)
Excellent! Great work. Very interesting. I'm interesting in methods for splitting water molecule, to H and O (great fuel, no?). Except electrolysis, is there an alternate method to do this, with low consumption energy? I know, this is a dream, but....
Dan Dumitrescu <>
OK - Monday, June 23, 2003 at 14:43:51 (BST)
This is a wonderfull site. You do a lot of work. Thank you very much. P. Viollaz
pascual viollaz <>
OK - Thursday, June 19, 2003 at 16:02:52 (BST)
great work I want to know if a strong magnetic field applied to a current of steam has some effect in its heating capacity thank you.
Enrique Guerrero <>
Useful - Wednesday, June 18, 2003 at 23:50:56 (BST)
Martin replies: It may reduce the heating capacity of the condensing steam.
Martin, One question. What kind of water do you drink?! Tap? Bottled? Which brand! thanks for the informative site...rare to find this quality of info - in any source! Tj Marbois
TJ Marbois <>
OK - Saturday, May 31, 2003 at 09:43:18 (BST)
Martin replies: Tap, mostly.
Extremely useful, very well structured and researched I have just started some research into foods for patients with dysphagia in order to obtain my MSc in Food Technology. We are looking for thickening and gelling agents that are more heat stable than what we are currently using. This website has given me a good grounding to start the research off Regards Andrew Sayer P.S. Any suggestions would be greatly appreciated
Andrew Sayer <>
Useful - Wednesday, May 28, 2003 at 18:00:39 (BST)
Очень интересный сайт. Я узнал много ранее неизвестного мне про воду. Я воспользовался некоторыми таблицами при подготовке лекций по физике коллоидов. Проф.M.Chaplin, Вы проделали гигантский труд по систематизации знаний о воде. Поднимаю бокал воды за Ваше здоровье !
Valery Babak - INEOS RAS, Moscow <>
Useful - Tuesday, May 13, 2003 at 18:10:27 (BST)
This is great. really GREAT. I cannot imagine how much work you put into it. I am currently doing a research on water psuedoscience. Great way to understand what it really means. I just wanna ask one question, this has been on my mind. R.O. (reverse osmosis) water claims to be one of the purest water out there. I understand that pure water cannot be acidic nor alkaline. R.O. water is pH 6.5-6.8, which means it is not pure. Is this because of the ineffeciency of R.O. water to filter volatile organic contaminants?
ng jyun yyan - <>
Useful - Tuesday, May 13, 2003 at 17:38:14 (BST)
Martin replies: pH is a poor indicator of purity as, for example, dissolved CO2 will acidify water (see also dissociation page).
Excellent resource! I have been looking for this scope and quality of information on water and its anomalous behavior for some time. Would you be kind enough to share your insights into a particular problem I am dealing with? I am trying to measure (to a precision of 1 millidegree) the melting temperature of very small (200-300nL) aqueous solutions held in a glass capillary (~200 micron ID,450 micron OD,1 cm long). I am using NaCl solutions with concentrations that range up to 500 milliOsmoles/Kg H2O for testing purposes as they have known freezing point depressions. The capillaries are supercooled to ~-25 deg C in an aluminum block to cause sample nucleation and the temperature of the block is then slowly ramped linearly to 0 deg C. The sample is backlit and the ice crystals that form are viewed under a microscope. Temperature is controlled / measured by a thermistor in the block adjacent to the capillary and the "melting point" is identified as the temperature at which the last ice crystal disappears. My problem is getting repeatable melting temperatures using such small samples. I get excellent results with larger samples but they are an order of magnitude worse ( +/- 10 milllidegree C)with those of 200-300nL. Would you have any suggestions as to what might be at play here that causes an apparent volume dependence in the repeatability ? Might the geometry of the sample and surface effects between the sample and the glass be a factor? Thank you in advance for any suggestions you might provide.
Pete Emond <>
Useful - Tuesday, May 06, 2003 at 21:35:23 (BST)
Martin replies: It is possible that (a) the ice is formed, initially trapping some liquid water due to the large surface/volume ratio, so that some (later-formed) ice is held at high pressure and/or (b) gas bubbles are formed on freezing at the relatively large glass/ice surface that partially insulates the ice. Any more help from out there?
Great work. Very interesting. Nice resource. Will come back. Maybe you're interested in our work on the magnetic analogue of ice: "Spin Ice". For review: S.T. Bramwell and M.J.P. Gingras, "Spin Ice State in Frustrated Magnetic Pyrochlore Materials"; Science, {294}, 1495 (2001). Michel Gingras
Michel Gingras - <>
Useful - Thursday, May 01, 2003 at 18:21:37 (BST)
Thanks for the work and links.
Prof. Robert Hasenohr <>
Interesting - Friday, April 25, 2003 at 14:51:27 (BST)
Nice initiative this water site I need help for two questions : What is the influence of calcium carbonate on the water pemittivity? What is the influence of permittivity on polymorphism forms of calcium carbonate ? Thank you by advance
Bonjour Christian - <>
OK - Sunday, April 20, 2003 at 20:49:35 (BST)
Martin replies: Both effects are expected to be very small or not measurable. Can anyone throw more light?
Nice information on water resources. I have a small question. Does water leads to increase in body weight due to some kind of impurities.
sanjeev -
Interesting - Thursday, April 17, 2003 at 08:02:19 (BST)
Martin replies: Drinking plenty of water has health benefits. Any associated weight gain is not harmful.
About kosmotropes and chaotropes: if we consider H2PO4- as a chaotrope and HPO42- as a kosmotrope, then the lyotropic effect of phosphate buffer is thought to change as a function of pH, for example, 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 6.0 is expected to be chaotropic whereas at pH 8.0 it will be kosmotropic. Is that correct ? Do you think you could send me specific references about lyotropic properties of H2PO4- and HPO42- ? With many thanks. P. Masson,CRSSA Grenoble-La Tronche, Fr Dr Chaplin: your site is more than useful, it is an outstanding mine of information. Congratulation!
Patrick Masson <>
Useful - Wednesday, April 09, 2003 at 17:02:58 (BST)
Martin replies: It is correct but any effect will be confused by the other phosphate ions present and the pH. Does anyone know of a specific reference?
Could anyone back up my argument that different brands of bottled water and tap water differ in weight and therefore some make you pee pee more than others. If so send me an email at Cheers PS love the website
Damien Flannagan <>
Interesting - Tuesday, April 08, 2003 at 14:32:32 (BST)
Very good!!!
Kim <>
OK - Tuesday, March 25, 2003 at 04:33:43 (GMT)
As a marathon swimmer, your immersion in water certainly goes deeper than mine.
Ted Erikson - <>
Useful - Monday, March 24, 2003 at 22:32:15 (GMT)
Hello, My name is Andrea, I'm a chemistry student doing a project on the mpemba effect. This site has been of great help. thank you very much.
Andrea Verhaegen <>
OK - Monday, March 10, 2003 at 16:09:40 (GMT)
I am now inspired for my art works, theme "Water". Thank you.
Anita Sjolind <>
Interesting - Sunday, March 09, 2003 at 22:11:07 (GMT)
Top website !!
Phil Brighton (Bsc ENVIRONMENT) <>
Interesting - Wednesday, March 05, 2003 at 09:53:59 (GMT)
Most interesting and informative site.
Andrew - <>
Interesting - Monday, February 10, 2003 at 12:15:54 (GMT)
Just a very quick note. Consider this, years ago we use to use canvas bags to hold drinking water. If you put hot water in the bag and then hung it in front of the radiator it would get very cold. Conversly if you put in cold water it would warm up to the temperature of the day. Just thought it was interesting in your hot and cold in a deep freeze. hank
hank baker <>
Interesting - Friday, February 07, 2003 at 18:14:16 (GMT)
Is not the Mpemba phenom comparing apples to oranges? If one were to submit "hot" samples every minute into a freezing environment, one would find that the first one in (now the cold water) would be the first to freeze and the last on in ("hot") would be the last to freeze. In other words - use the exact same water.
Useful - Tuesday, January 21, 2003 at 19:41:09 (GMT)
Martin replies: A better comparison would be to place both hot and cold samples in the freezer at the same time, then the 'hot' sample freezes first at least some of the time; see Mpemba effect.
Congratulations Martin, a very good, well organised site. A notable lacuna is hydration forces. These are so important in ultrastructural biology and colloid science that I expect to see them on a comprehensive page such as yours. You might think of putting in a link to Adrian Parsegian's site dealing with this important effect, or perhaps to our site where we discuss it in the context of its relation to unfreezable water. Best wishes and good luck Joe Wolfe, UNSW, Sydney
Joe - <>
Useful - Friday, January 17, 2003 at 23:08:07 (GMT)
Wow! What an interesting web site for both myself and my 4th grade students. Several of the students would like to ask what kitchen additives (ex. salt and sugar) can affect the boiling point of water? Thanks again for such an informative site.
Mrs. Carolyn Penner <>
Useful - Friday, January 03, 2003 at 21:59:37 (GMT)
Mr. Martin Chaplin Your site web is great. I am student of the University of Valley Cali Colombia, and I research into the magnetic effect on water to apply to agriculture, I found serious references in your web site that I will try to obtain and seek other recommended papers that I found on the internet. I tried to obtain these papers on-line, but the journal is only on-line since 2000. I wrote editor of journal and I am waiting the response. I believe that these papers can be important. The journal is Magnetic and Electrical separation and the papers are the following; Mag. Electr. Sep. vol. 3 (1992), p. 93, vol. 5 (1993), p.71, vol. 7 (1996), p. 77, vol. 8 (1998), p.239. In the IEEE Transactions on Magnetics there is a paper of Mr. Kronenberg. The references is IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. Mag-21, No. 5, September 1985, pp. 2059-2061. Are there other important documents concerning the magnetic field effects on water?
Mauricio López Obando <>
Useful - Tuesday, December 24, 2002 at 18:08:31 (GMT)
Very useful....Congratulations...
Dr. Osman KOPTAGEL <>
Useful - Tuesday, December 03, 2002 at 13:58:40 (GMT)
Very useful site. I found the enzyme site very rewarding to read. I have only glance at the vast text on hydration. I have students doing a project in food preservation where water activity is important. ! Yes keep up the fantastic work - A seldom seen comprehensiveness on the net
Philip Oppenheim <>
Useful - Tuesday, November 26, 2002 at 02:21:29 (GMT)
I'm really pleased to find a site as comprehensive as this. Excellent.
Pete Williams -<>
Useful - Friday, November 15, 2002 at 14:35:31 (GMT)
Great site - keep it up.
Mark Scriven - <>
Useful - Friday, November 15, 2002 at 14:32:53 (GMT)
Water might be the most remarkable substance. After browsing through this site, I believe this. In any case, this site is most remarkable!!
Michael Flohr - <>
Useful - Thursday, November 14, 2002 at 22:55:41 (GMT)
Great Site: How much we have to know to realise how little we know!
Les Gilmer <>
Interesting - Tuesday, November 12, 2002 at 02:31:47 (GMT)
Merci, j'ai trouvé des infos pour mon exposé...pierre
Pieces Auto Binet -
OK - Sunday, November 10, 2002 at 09:37:46 (GMT)
Pretty extensive stuff. Very impressive.
Lieven <>
Interesting - Thursday, October 31, 2002 at 11:52:11 (GMT)
Professor Chaplin, Paper towels absorb water in two ways: 1. Like a sponge in microscopic spaces between the fibers. 2. The cellulose plant fibers soak up water molecules. Any water behavior to further explain or to add detail to the above statements. I am doing a grade school science experiment. Your website is intense. Thanks, Greg Erie, PA
Gregory Chludzinski - <>
Interesting - Tuesday, October 29, 2002 at 00:18:34 (GMT)
Dear Professor Chaplin, I think your site is absolutely fantastic. I have been very interested in studying the properties of water, and your site seems to be the very best. Congratulations!
Vanessa Richardson <>
Interesting - Sunday, October 27, 2002 at 12:28:39 (GMT)
Great site
Andy - OK - Saturday, October 26, 2002 at 07:18:33 (BST)
Great site<>
Useful - Friday, October 18, 2002 at 18:55:42 (BST)
Dear Professor Chaplin, We've been looking all over the internet, libraries, the science citation index and whatnot, and were unable to find any information concerning the interaction between microwaves and water molecules. Luckily, we found your page. Besides that, your page also provided us with a wealth of useful information on related subjects and we are very very grateful for your efforts. Thank you very much for saving our physics project, Hanneke and Martijn
Hanneke Janssen and Martijn de Wild <>
Useful - Thursday, October 17, 2002 at 14:35:34 (BST)
Just checking out your site. Lynn
Interesting - Tuesday, October 15, 2002 at 01:03:52 (BST)
I am Valentin Magidson, a physicist working for Applied Materials Israel. I found your site about water very interesting. It is really exciting, thank you. I have a question: where it is possible to find a temperature dependence of the liquid water O-H bond infrared absorption spectrum (around 3 microns wavelength) at the constant pressure, particularly for the normal pressure value? I only have found some data on the temperature blue shift in the constant volume experiments with high pressures developed while heating.
Valentin Magidson <>
Useful - Sunday, October 13, 2002 at 12:41:03 (BST)
I found it very useful in my report on the physical and chemical properties of water in my chemistry class. I recommended this site to all of my friends for reference. Good job. Sarah
Sarah -
OK - Monday, September 16, 2002 at 21:34:43 (BST)
Extremely useful site and really helped me with my "importance of Water" essay I had to do for Biology. Very good.
Jamie P
Useful - Saturday, September 14, 2002 at 21:44:39 (BST)
This site is really outstanding in the collected information on water and ices. I already learned a lot and will return soon to read more. C.L. (Ph.D. student in Food Technology - Subject: Phase changes (of water/lipids) under high pressure)
Cornelius Luscher <>
Useful - Wednesday, September 11, 2002 at 14:34:01 (BST)
Dear Professor Chaplin, As an industrial practitioner in the art of manufacturing ultra high purity water, I have found your site to be one of the most extraordinary resources, no, THE most extraordinary site on water that I could even imagine. I have learned more about water in the first half hour of finding your site than I have accumulated from all sources in my 25 year career. I thank you and remain awestruck by your beautiful and eminently qualified work. My sincere thanks.
Bob Livingston <>
Useful - Friday, September 06, 2002 at 22:07:00 (BST)
Extremely useful source of information regarding water, not even talking about the comprehensive reference list and ice structures in PDB format (which I sought for a long time). I used to give lectures about water in my University, but I found a lot of things new to me on this site. I think, it would be nice to compile the content in a downloadable PDF brochure, because in the current form it is a sort of "spaghetti" heap of html pages.
Anatoly Chernyshev - <>
Useful - Wednesday, August 28, 2002 at 19:00:16 (BST)
Martin replies: I will try to better organize the 'spaghetti' but I believe that science is not one-dimensional and a Web format suits it better than a book. I provide a searchable index as a pasta short-cut.

I have a question: Does magnetised water have any beneficial effects on human health. J F Thompson
John Thompson - <>
OK - Friday, August 23, 2002 at 01:17:58 (BST)
Martin replies: We await proof.
A very interesting homepage. I have a question on the hydration or cations such as sodium in water and ice. What happens with the hydration of sodium when an aqueous solution is cooled down and ice is formed. What is the effect on the self-diffusion of sodium. Thanks
Luc Van Loon <>
Interesting - Wednesday, August 07, 2002 at 16:47:14 (BST)
Martin replies: As the ice forms the ions will concentrate in the remaining liquor. When concentrated and cold enough this will form a glass. If the temperature is not low enough to form the glass the sodium ions may still diffuse within the remaining aqueous pools as they would (allowing for temperature and concentration change) in water. If a glass is formed their diffusion should not be measurable.
Martin, What a great site. I have always been fascinated by water since my A Level course in the dim & distant past. Without it, I would be out of a job (plus a few other things)! Let's hope Dr Evil, FB and the fembots do not get any ideas from it about ruling the world!
Richard Laishley <>
Interesting - Tuesday, August 06, 2002 at 22:36:04 (BST)
It is the most exhaustive collection of information on water. May I suggest inclusion of details about water within biological cells ,how it is playing the role as "solvent" or structural entity? In the protein-protein interaction within the cell what is state of the water of hydration of the components?
Useful - Friday, July 26, 2002 at 07:38:54 (BST)
Martin replies: There are reviews on water in living cells (for example, [89, 374, 476]. Specific hydrogen bonding water molecules may be required for biologically correct protein protein interaction (for example, [377]).
Just stopped in for a visit, nice site
Owner Financing -
OK - Monday, July 22, 2002 at 02:27:18 (BST)
Bravo! A very interesting and very useful site. I found the section concerning the molecular vibration and absorption of water very informative. Thank you and keep up the good work.
Dr. Andrew Hind
Interesting - Tuesday, July 16, 2002 at 07:03:02 (BST)
Dr. Chaplin: I salute you! Having read lots of superficial/limited websites on hydrogen bonding, I was elated to stumble upon this one. A question: It's been noted that histidine ligands in multinuclear Zn sites in proteins "stabilise the positive charge" by donating an hbond to a second-shell residue. How exactly does this hydrogen bond compensate for the positive charge? Is it correct to say that the positive ions polarise the N-H bond on the imidazole ring, making it more likely to donate a hydrogen bond? Could we say that any ligand would have a higher probability of donating a bond?
Shyam Prabhakar <>
Useful - Thursday, July 11, 2002 at 01:24:51 (BST)
Very interesting website about water.
Willem Piening <>
Interesting - Monday, July 08, 2002 at 13:57:35 (BST)
DEAR DR CHAPLIN: I have study your water site and I think is the best information that I have ever read about water. I am working with Dr. Korotkov Kirlian camera in the analysis of water and objects, but this is a very new area. I have found that the kirlian image of the common water is very different of the image of magnetic water, mineral water, and many others? ¿Do you believe in the capacity of water to guard external information? I have seen that water is very sensible to the human magnetism, like the radiation of the human hand. If you know how to get information about this I will appreciate your answer. Darío Salas Sommer M.D.
Dario Salas Sommer <>
OK - Friday, July 05, 2002 at 22:01:40 (BST)
Does boiling or freezing change the pH of water? Does boiling or freezing deplete the oxygen content of water? Thanks.
Henry <>
Useful - Monday, June 24, 2002 at 11:19:47 (BST)
Martin replies: Both the pH and molecular oxygen content of liquid water decrease with increasing temperature. Freezing water reduces the solubility of oxygen to zero in the ice crystals but it may not be able to escape. The pH of ice is about 10.

Very interesting site. As a microwave engineer, I would be interested in more detail on the complex dielectric permittivity of water from DC up to a frequency of 100 GHz. Thank you to the authors for a very worthwhile contribution to cyber-space.
Dr Rick Keam - <>
Interesting - Sunday, June 16, 2002 at 09:55:51 (BST)
Dear Sir, I have found your website interesting, but it has not given me the information I need. I am a graduate student at the University of Alabama. I am doing research involving water and what happens to it in solutions of particular salts. I need to know the number of water molecules that are associated with a single ionic unit, i.e.sodium or lithium or magnesium, etc. Could you please direct me to a website that will give me this information. I have found a lot of information in your site that seems to allude to it and give energy of hydration but I need this number. Thank you very much Sincerely Melanie L. Moody
Melanie L. Moody <>
Interesting - Monday, June 10, 2002 at 18:55:38 (BST)
Martin replies: The exact hydration number varies with how it is determined (for example, I. Danielewicz-Ferchmina and A. R. Ferchmin, Mass density in hydration shells of ions, Physica B 245 (1998) 34-44).
Dear Dr. I am really glad to have found your web site. Slowly I will digest most of the info. At first sight, jumping from one place to other I failed to find any references to the work of an Italian chemist who worked in 1950-1970 period. His name is Giorgio Piccardi and claimed to have found several anomalous effects induced by physical means in water colloids. During several decades I wondered if that reports were independently confirmed or rejected. He jumped from physical-chemistry to medical climatology, trying to link those phenomena to human health. Any info about this research line will be greatly appreciated. Congratulations, Roberto Ferrari
Roberto Ferrari <>
Useful - Friday, June 07, 2002 at 19:18:09 (BST)
Martin replies: Giorgio Piccardi is said to have made the telling statement: It is not a good procedure to deny something one sees only because there is no way to understand it. Although his experiments on the effect of the sun's position and activity on aqueous chemical phenomena have been criticized [357], there is reason to believe that these criticisms themselves are flawed (for example, [363]) and there has been some subsequent confirmation, for example, [358].
The site was really useful for me as I was doing a paper on the anomalies of water. The best site I found of water... so good work and I hope you carry on enlarging it. Triinu from Estonia
Triinu Tõrv <>
Useful - Sunday, May 19, 2002 at 15:03:22 (BST)
I thought the work was very nice and polished but it would be nice if u had a place where people would ask questions and you can answer.
jen <>
Misleading - Thursday, May 16, 2002 at 22:46:34 (BST)
Martin replies: Ask away, by email or via this Visitor's book. 
A refreshing site after all the speculation on "structured water." I found the summary on ionization and average molecular weights of hydroxide and hydronium complexes quite useful (I develop ultrapure water instrumentation).
Paul Melanson <>
Interesting - Wednesday, May 15, 2002 at 21:01:02 (BST)
Water structure may be caused by actions of solutes. There is some evidence in U.S. patent no. 5,672,253, "Apparatus for making hexagonal and pentagonal molecular water structure". Please edit if too long. Thanks.
parhatsathid nabadalung <>
Hard going - Sunday, May 05, 2002 at 05:56:37 (BST)
Martin has severely abbreviated and edited this as the original contribution repeats earlier contributions (see below) and was considered too long. There does not seem to be much need of 'proof' or 'evidence' in such patents.
I found this site very interesting. But I have a ? that I couldn't find the answer to. If you placed a drop of water in a petri-dish and you placed small beads (small enough to place 4 or 5 of them in the drop) into the drop. Then you moved the drop of water around in the petri-dish the beads would remain in the drop of water. I would like to know why this is so. If you can provide the answer this ? please e-mail me at Thank You.
Matt Romanowicz <>
Interesting - Sunday, May 05, 2002 at 03:34:56 (BST)
Martin replies: This is due to the high surface tension of water not allowing the beads to escape..
This website was a great help to me in appreciating the complexity of water. I had been reading Philip Ball's (Nature's editor) on water, but this--this is really fascinating. Thank you for taking the time to arrange such a wonderful resource!
Grace Kim <>
Useful - Tuesday, April 30, 2002 at 07:39:14 (BST)
Small Clusters vs. Hard Water Althought the point is not very clear from a scientific point of view, it has been suggested  that small water clusters, with lower surface tension, are good for you.  However such clusters may be produced by ions or alcohol which have other health-affecting effects. So it seems, small cluster theory and its relations to our health, is at least tenuous. 
parhatsathid nabadalung <>
OK - Thursday, April 18, 2002 at 11:54:43 (BST)
Martin replies: In line with the authors permission, I have shortened this note.
Some recent photos of the terrain on Mars have led to speculation that water erosion had been occurring recently there. In view of the low atmospheric pressure (about 1 to 10 mm Hg, given the irregular shape of the planet and seasonal changes), and colloidally suspended iron oxides found by the Pathfinder robotic expedition, I wonder whether erosion might be by a deliquescent ferrous (chloride?) solution rather than pure water. Any comment on this idea?
John Michael Williams <>
Useful - Sunday, April 14, 2002 at 00:17:15 (BST)
Martin replies: The concentrations could not be that great.
At present, I've made a paper about determination of hydrogen peroxide concentration in water by NIRS. I want to know the structure of hydrogen peroxide in water. Please let me know a related paper of that. Thank you very much.
Hun Rang Lim <>
OK - Friday, April 12, 2002 at 08:46:37 (BST)
Martin replies: There has been much work on the gas phase structure but can anyone help with the solvated structure?
Dietary fiber and hydrocolloids. Scientists have suspected that plant fiber contains silica, which has been proven to be necessary for the human diet. So the fact that dietary fiber works, besides in helping aid digestion could be the silicon content which is lacking in Western diets. Far Eastern people have far better skin quality because of their staple rice consumption which is high in powdered rice husks known to be rich in silica content. Water promotes our body's ability to absorb silica through a form of hydrocolloids. However I have found out the reason why they are so well absorbed has very much to do with our body's slow absorption process. If the mineral salts are taken slowly, as in natural mineral water, our ability to absorb is much better than taken in "tablets" due to their high concentration. Taking mineral in dissolved forms or minerals suspended in colloids actually improves our ability to absorb them provided that they are taken slowly over a period of a day instead of just "popping pills"
parhatsathid nabadalung <>
OK - Wednesday, April 10, 2002 at 03:02:47 (BST)
Martin replies: An interesting point. The text has been edited down in line with the authors instructions.
Mirjana Miloradov, prof.University <>
Useful - Sunday, April 07, 2002 at 18:52:00 (BST)
A fascinating site, both instructive and entertaining: the kind of site you warmly recommend your students to visit...but you are the first to read everything! Thanks also for the abundance of links (and for the number of references, that was a great job) [A suggestion for another link: ""; this site is not 100% complete, but contains many pages in which connections between colour and water are presented] Fabrizia Grepioni
Fabrizia Grepioni <>
Interesting - Monday, March 18, 2002 at 07:43:11 (GMT)
Dear Prof. Chaplin, this is an excellent, unbiased and extensive introduction to water and you provide a most useful guide to its many puzzling anomalies. The general public and the water science community can only benefit from such a work.
Matteo Buzzacchi, Ph.D. <>
Interesting - Wednesday, March 13, 2002 at 01:52:52 (GMT)
Mr. Martin, excellent Site, plentiful of wonderful information, Came to your page from a post in our discussion list (sacredlandscape.list) where we used to discuss about practical uses to the platonic solids. I'm really impressed with the use of their structures to reveal the mysteries of the water. Very good job, keep on. Alexandre,
Alexandre César Weber <>
Useful - Tuesday, March 12, 2002 at 11:19:25 (GMT)
Dear Professor Chaplin, your website has been an incredible encyclopedia of information fundamental to my PhD foundations. Thank you for investing the time to produce such a well rounded product. Kind Regards, Chris Kerrisk
Christopher Kerrisk <>
Useful - Sunday, March 10, 2002 at 21:23:26 (GMT)
Dear Professor Chaplin, Your site is wonderful. I have advised by graduate students to make use of the data at your site during my class on interfacial phenomena. Thank you for your effort, and please continue the site.
Bill Kolling, Ph.D. - <>
Useful - Thursday, March 07, 2002 at 17:11:51 (GMT)
I browsed on into your site after a search on Google. I noticed you had some information on the 'small cluster' drinking water products. I have been drinking water from a San Diego company for about eight months, and the experiential results bear up to their claims, especially for athletic performance. Personally, I drink it because it helps greatly with concentration. I'd be interested in scientific comparisons between the different drinking water products that claim to provide better hydration.
Gen Kiyooka - <>
Useful - Saturday, March 02, 2002 at 15:43:21 (GMT)
Martin replies: I would also like to see some properly conducted scientific trials. It is well known that there is a placebo effect at work here, but is there anything else (!?!). I have removed the advertisement from the above message.
Extremely cool site. Especially the fact that it is updated very often with an excellent reference list! Keep up the good work. It would be nice though to add a surfactant (micelle/vesicle/inverted hexagonal) chapter, or something like that, but that's just a personal interest...
Jaap Klijn - <>
Interesting - Monday, February 25, 2002 at 19:40:55 (GMT)
Dr. Martin - Congratulations on a clean explanation of our most valuable asset, "WATER". I am pleased that more of us are taking the time to see what it is that makes up most of all our cells and ourselves. It is water, pristine and clean. An essence that we all need and want. Eric Olson
Eric Olson <>
Useful - Saturday, February 16, 2002 at 02:24:25 (GMT)
Great job, very enlightening and federative, you offer the backbone for the future knowledge tree of water science. Long life to your site
Bizot Herve' <>
Useful - Friday, February 15, 2002 at 16:00:50 (GMT)
Help!! My 9 year old son is dying to know why the water spins counter clockwise as it goes down our drains at home in the USA. Why does it spin at all? Why counter clockwise? Would could be done to make it spin clockwise? Thank you so much. I hope someone can read this and send me an answer. Water sure is cool!!!!! Virginia Bamford 650-851-5631 or
Virginia Bamford <>
Interesting - Saturday, January 19, 2002 at 04:03:43 (GMT)
Martin replies: This is due to the Earth slowly spinning (counter clockwise as viewed from above in the northern hemisphere, clockwise as viewed from above in the southern hemisphere) under the water; see the Scientific American site
This is an absolutely fantastic site . Few people realise just how incredible water is and take it so much for granted .Mr Chaplin , your web site is mind - blowing . Amazing ,literally !
Interesting - Tuesday, January 15, 2002 at 16:57:38 (GMT)
Absolutely informative, intelligent & well researched. To put in a nutshell it is a site as COOL as WATER
Prasad <>
Interesting - Sunday, December 30, 2001 at 15:18:49 (GMT)
Congratulations for your very nice and informative site. Best regards Claudio Zannoni
Claudio Zannoni - <>
OK - Saturday, November 24, 2001 at 18:36:16 (GMT)
Willards water, microwater, microhydrin in water etc. Most of the discussions centers on the surface tension changes in water with the introduction of silicates and solutes. However, the idea of homeopathic medicine using dilution in the treatment of disease is nothing new and has been known by Hippocrates. However, we have as yet to explain why these medicines work when mixed with such kinds of water........
Parhatsathid Nabadalung <>
Hard going - Wednesday, November 21, 2001 at 15:25:02 (GMT)
Martin has abbreviated and edited this as the original contribution was considered too long.
I found this site extremely fascinating and will definitly be returning to it in the near future and recommending it to everybody, It has deepened my interest in this wonderful little molecule
Vincent Cauvin-Gray <>
Interesting - Tuesday, November 20, 2001 at 21:23:04 (GMT)
Dr. Chaplin, I am a chemist and an MD. This material is really great for self learning, as a refreshment course and for teaching to all levels. Thanks a lot. A suggestion: it would be interesting to include water molecules in hydrated crystals with different grades of hydration (one, two or more water molecules associated to the crystal) as CaCl2 (Calcium Chloride), Sodium Sulphate, etc. With my best regards. Carlos
Carlos Javier Garcia-Valdes <>
Useful - Monday, November 19, 2001 at 18:56:04 (GMT)
Dear Dr. Chaplin, this is an excellent and instructive site. I have a question about H2O and D2O. D2O seems to stabilize protein complexes, including microtubules. I knew this idea years ago when I was a undergraduate student on the cell biology course. I do not have the textbook in hand, but I have just found several old papers about that issue: Cell 1988, 52:935; Nature, 1969, 221(180):563; J Biol Chem 1970, 245(15):3733; J Cell Biol 1975, 64(1):42. The main point is that D2O really does affect the assembly of protein complex. Do hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic effects play important roles?  I think this could be helpful for this fascinating website. Best regards.
Chen Chen <>
Useful - Tuesday, November 13, 2001 at 02:43:45 (GMT)
I would recommend you to send an URL link to our common friend Prof. Poltorak OM in MSU. I am almost sure he will be glad to look at your excellent site on the anomalous properties of water and water structure. Best regards, Ivan.
Ivan Torshin <>
OK - Tuesday, November 06, 2001 at 21:17:57 (GMT)
I'm always looking for fresh ways to present material to my classes and myself too. Your site goes a long way in doing that. Thanks!
Jere M. Marrs <>
Useful - Tuesday, November 06, 2001 at 05:51:51 (GMT)
Dear Mr Chaplin, Thank you for this very useful site. It has helped me greatly in my A level course. This site gave me the information I was looking for. Thank you again.
Brian Noble
Useful - Friday, November 02, 2001 at 12:10:40 (GMT)
Dear Martin Chaplin: Thank you for your excellent water site. I am now a college student in USTC (the Univ. of Sci & Tech of China) and I would like to ask some questions that have always confuse me. In a simplified but correct view, can we regard the water's internal energy as being composed of linear energy, rotary energy and vibratory energy? If the answer is yes, how about the proportion of them? And how about the microwave's effect on the water's energy distribution? I also want to know more articles in the field of water, so can you help me? And thank you again for your work!
Ning Zhi <>
Useful - Monday, October 22, 2001 at 03:34:31 (BST)
Martin replies: The simplified view can only be supported for the gas phase. The internal energy of water in the liquid phase is far more complex.
Fascinating. You may like to know of Stafford Beer's work on the application of icosahedral structure to work groups of thirty people (one person for each edge). Each vertex represents a topic for discussion. It is the largest symmetric form in which each member has potentially the same context and perspective for decision making and equipartion of information. Beer calls this team syntegrity. This is not uncontroversial and it was with great delight that I have told him of your work. Stafford Beer "Beyond Dispute" Wiley 1994
Nick Green <>
OK - Tuesday, October 02, 2001 at 21:53:40 (BST)
That's the way reviews should be done ! Congratulations.
: - Friday, September 21, 2001 at 15:14:16 (BST)
I work as science education associate here in the University of the Philippines. Can I ask for your suggestion on the sequence and concepts for teaching grade 7 to 13 students? Thank you Please send your suggestion on my e-mail, Sheryll
Sheryll I. Espinocilla <>
Useful - Wednesday, August 08, 2001 at 07:07:06 (BST)
Dear Martin Chaplin, I think your site is brilliant. I am a sculptor working in a wide range of media on the theme of water but without its actual presence. If you know anyone researching unusual aspects of water who would consider engaging in a creative arts/science dialogue I should be most interested. Best wishes, Antonia Spowers
Antonia Spowers - <>
OK - Wednesday, July 11, 2001 at 00:18:42 (BST)
Do you have any information on an alloy of copper and zinc creating a catalytic effect to reduce the scaling tendencies of hard water?
Tom Martin - <>
Useful - Tuesday, June 26, 2001 at 17:27:28 (BST)
Martin replies: No, but I am sure that if brass worked then I would have.
Dear Martin, Congratulations on a wonderful web site. I disagree with the explanation for the Mpemba effect. Here in Philadelphia, we occasionally have some very cold weather, low temperatures of 0 to -10F. During these times, if a water pipe in your home is going to freeze, it is invariably the hot water pipe that freezes first. Both pipes have equilibrated to room temperature, 60 to 70F, and are at the same pressure, 45 to 60 psi. The difference is that one pipe contains water that began at perhaps 40F and slowly warmed to room temperature, the other pipe started with the same water but was heated to 120 to 150F before slowly cooling to room temperature. I had always believed, perhaps incorrectly, that the previously heated water freezes first because gas solubility had been reduced by heating, the gas forms bubbles that had not yet redissolved, and that dissolved gas trying to escape during solidification has the effect of increasing pressure and thus suppressing the solidification temperature (When molten iron solidifies, the pressure of the gas generated can reach several atmospheres, even when starting with only 30 ppm oxygen in the liquid, and can cause an improperly handled ingot to explode. People have been killed by this effect.). Another consideration is that rejection of the solute gases is simply diffusion rate dependent, and that in highly ordered systems diffusion becomes a bit more difficult. Maybe the energy required to nucleate a bubble in water near the freezing point is sufficient such that the liquid with the fewest bubbles to nucleate wins the freezing race. 
Best regards,
Bill McCauley <>
;-Tuesday, June 05, 2001 at 4:32 PM
Martin replies: Yes, clearly dissolved gas may be an important contributory factor to the mechanism I describe.
Dear Martin, I "visited" your site on water and really enjoyed reading all the information. Particularly the emphasis on structural aspects of short lived clusters is very interesting. The chapter explaining qualitatively the "anomalies" is also extremely interesting and should interest many teachers at all levels as it promotes the way of thinking when one does research. Congratulations. Best regards
José Teixeira
:-Tuesday, April 10, 2001 at 09:34 (BST)
Hi, I am doing research for a school science project. My project is " Do different types of water effect how long an icicle is". For my project I am using rain water, sugar water, salt water, and tap water and testing to see which icicle will form to be the longest. If you have any information on if adding things to water have an effect on how long an icicle or any other information concerning my topic it would be a big help to me if you would E-mail it to me. Thank You
Barbara Robinson <>
Useful - Sunday, March 25, 2001 at 02:55:13 (BST)
You need a better OPINION choice than OK! You need superlatives such as magnificent or marvellous. Our group has done research on Zeta Potential as applied to the human body - and water is a big part of our program. We take baseline measurements of the patient and then treat with anionic surfactants and R.O. water. We are also investigating magnetic water and electrostatic charge on water to use in conjunction with our current program. I can say without exception, that yours is the best source of information about water. Best of all, you keep up-dating your site and expanding the pool of knowledge.
Jane Kress <>
OK - Thursday, March 22, 2001 at 05:25:51 (GMT)
Loved your site. Please elaborate for me why liquid drinks like iced tea or herbal teas are not to be considered as part of our daily water intake. Thank you.
Kathy Parent-Lew <>
Useful - Monday, February 26, 2001 at 19:02:58 (GMT)
Martin replies: Whether to include them or not depends on the advisor. Where they are not included, it is because of the diuretic action of caffeine (or other such herbal solutes).
RE: SNOWBALL EARTH. Can you explain to me how ice freezes so that it becomes transparent? Is it due to consecutive freeze-thaw actions, or is it related to the 'speed' at which the water freezes, or the mineral content, or it's turbidity...or something else?
Shane Pereira <>
Interesting - Monday, February 26, 2001 at 13:50:02 (GMT)
Martin replies: Over a long period of time at a temperature slightly below zero (particularly in an oscillating temperature regime) large ice crystals tend to grow at the expense of small crystals (This is actually unwanted when it occurs in ice-cream). A consequence is that glacial ice has very large, and hence transparent, crystals.
Dr. Chaplin, Your water site is excellent. Thank you for it.
David Ross, USGS/Menlo Park
: - Thursday, 22 February 15, 2001 at 06:03 AM
Dear Martin Chaplin, Thank you for very useful web site. Sincerely,
Alexander Zasetsky, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada
: - Thursday, 15 February 15, 2001 at 15:15 PM
Dear Professor Chaplin, The water site you offered scientific community is very welcome! There are many interesting informations. I'd like to add three references, in connection with microwave effects on water: 1. Rai S., Singh U.P., et al., Effect of water's microwave power density memory on fungal spore germination, Electro- and Magnetobiology, 13(3), 247-252, 1994. 2. Rai S., Singh U.P., et al., Additional evidence of stable electromagnetic field induced changes in water revealed by fungal spore germination, Electro- and Magnetobiology, 13(3), 253-259, 1994. 3. Kmecl P., Jerman I., Skarja M., Microwave electromagnetic fields affects the corona discharge pattern of water, Proceedings of the 4th EBEA Congress, Zagreb, Croatia, 18-22 November, 1998. Regardes, Simona Miclaus, Sibiu, Romania.
Simona Miclaus - <>
Useful - Thursday, February 15, 2001 at 07:43:35 (GMT)
Interesting and most comprehensive that I have seen on the net. My interest is paper physics and in particular cellulose debonding in the presence of water. Any pertinent references? Keep up the good work!
Paul Shallhorn <>
Interesting - Monday, February 12, 2001 at 14:49:45 (GMT)
You kept me captivated with your information.
andrea buchanan
OK - Monday, January 29, 2001 at 03:43:21 (GMT)
Dear Martin, You have an excellent site, to say the least. I give some of the "water" topics in my Physical Environmental Chemistry course, I hope you will not mind if I direct my students to your page. Best regards,
Igor Svishchev
: - Monday, January 22, 2001 at 5:28 PM
Dear Martin Chaplin, Thank you for the courtesy of making me aware of the "Water" website.
Interesting: yes
Informative: yes
Attractively produced: yes.
Misleading: partly. This needs an explanation. When you write about "strongly bound" water, do you know any interaction stronger than a hydrogen bond in which a water molecule could participate?
With best regards.

Felix Franks
: - Monday, January 22, 2001 at 11:55 AM
Andreas Zavitsas replies: If "hydrogen bond" refers to the strength of binding of water molecules to each other, then the answer is that there are many examples for much stronger binding with both cations (Al3+, Ca2+, Li+, etc.) and anions (F-, HO-). The binding energy of one water molecule to Li+ is about 33 kcal/mol, much stronger than the usually quoted values of less than 10 kcal/mol for the average strength of hydrogen bonds between water molecules. Many thanks for making this site available. Andreas A. Zavitsas, Dept. of Chemistry, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY. Monday, November 5, 2001 at 4:06 PM.
Dear Professor Chaplin, A quick scan suggests it to be comprehensive and interesting to read. Personally I would not classify the 2nd critical point of water to be a confirmed anomaly at this stage - the evidence is circumstantial at this stage and not conclusive. Given that the purported 2nd critical point appears to be in a region of the phase diagram which is currently unreachable, it could stay that way for a while. There is still a school of thought that says that high-density amorphous ice may simply be a highly distorted crystal, although I don't follow that view myself. As for water being easy to supercool, may be, but I have tried to do it in a neutron beam on several occasions, and failed completely so far, in spite of listening to all the wisdom on this issue. Thanks for letting me know about your website, which I will put on my Favourites list!
Alan Soper.
: - Monday, January 22, 2001 at 8:46 AM
Dear Martin: Thank you for informing me your water web site. In fact, the web site is interesting to me. In feedback, I put my home page address in the following. The home page is updated every year showing our latest research contributions. Your activities overlaps extensively with mine. So, you may find some interesting stuff there. Best regards,
Fumio Hirata
: - Monday, January 22, 2001 at 1:16 AM
Dear Mr. Chaplin: Your site is wonderful. Thanks for developing it.
Lynn Thurston, PhD
: - Monday, January 15, 2001 at 10:49 (GMT)
Dear Professor Martin Chaplin: Thanks for a very interesting and useful site. I am a cancer research scientist. Based on your research and theory, I think that the level of clustered water may be different between normal cell and malignant cell. I would like to use clustered water for cancer prevention research. I hope to collaborate with you in the future.
Zhi Y. Wang, Ph.D. <>
OK - Wednesday, January 03, 2001 at 19:03:39 (GMT)
Dear Professor Martin Chaplin, Thank you for your prompt response to my queries. If you have any suggestions for addressing my problem in selecting frequencies that are absorbed by water molecules and not by hydrated ions or vice versa, please let me know. Congratulations for evolving a web-page where all the information about water molecule can be retrieved from one site. It is a great help. M. B. Sahasrabudhe. 18th December 2000.
M. B. Sahasrabudhe < >
OK - Monday, December 18, 2000 at 01:43:57 (GMT)
Thanks for a very interesting and useful site. You and your readers may find the site: relevant. Keith Johnson
Keith Johnson - <>
Useful - Tuesday, November 28, 2000 at 19:56:39 (GMT)
Thank you so much for a very interesting, well-structured and informative homepage on water.
Inga Pagh <>
: - Thursday, November 9, 2000 at 13:40 (BST)
this is an extraordinary and extremely useful resource; thank you
Carl Feickert <>
: - Wednesday, November 8, 2000 at 22:36 (BST)
I have been looking for information on water structure around the web. Your site is one of the best ones about that. Congratulations!. I encourage you to continue improving. What about the effect of pressure, temperature o ions on the water structure? Regards from Canary Islands. Dr. J.J. Hernández-Brito
OK - Saturday, October 21, 2000 at 23:26:22 (BST)
I love your water site
Mike Klymkowsky - <Michael.Klymkowsky@Colorado.EDU>
: - Sunday, October 15, 2000 at 20:06 (BST)
Your work on water structure is inspiring
Bill Holloway - <>
: - Wednesday, October 11, 2000 at 15:02 (BST)
There is a wealth of information on water all in one place!! The structures in Jmol are super. Actual data and reference are given. Great site. THANKS!!!
Scott Sinex <>
Useful - Thursday, August 31, 2000 at 20:06:40 (BST)
Thank you for your interesting and informative collection of material on water chemistry.
Vincent Patrick - <>
Useful - Thursday, August 31, 2000 at 07:43:52 (BST)
Nice initiative this water page!
Hans De Loof <>
: - Wednesday, July 12, 2000 at 13:23 (BST)


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