Ice-two (ice II)
may be synthesized from hexagonal ice at 198 K and 300 MPa or by decompressing ice-five (ice V) at 238 K but is not easily formed by cooling ice-three (ice III)
(see Phase Diagram). It may form
a major proportion of icy moons such as Jupiter's Gannymede
Its unit cell, which forms rhombohedral
crystals, (Space group ) is shown opposite. In the crystal,
all water molecules are hydrogen bonded to four others,
two as donor and two as acceptor. Ice-two may exist
metastably below ~100 K between ambient pressure and
~5 GPa. At ambient pressure it irreversibly transforms
into ice Ic above 160 K. As the H-O-H angle does not vary much
from that of the isolated molecule, the hydrogen bonds
are not straight (although shown so in the figures).
Half the open hexagonal channels of ice Ih
have collapsed in ice II.
The relationship of the ice II structure to ice Ih
can be visualized by detaching the columns of hexameric
rings, moving them relatively up or down at right angles
to their plane, rotating them about 30° around this
axis and re-linking the hydrogen bonds in a more compact
way to give a density of 1.16 g cm-3. The hydrogen
bonding is ordered and fixed in ice-two, as can be seen
in the linkages round the hexamers. There is no corresponding
disordered phase, in contrast to the other ordered ices VIII, IX, XI and XV. The lack of a disordered phase has been correlated with the high energy difference between the most and the second most stable ice configurations . Some of ice-two's hydrogen bonds are
bent and, consequentially, much weaker than the hydrogen
bonds in hexagonal ice.
See left for the view down the hexagonal c axis.
unit cell consists of two hydrogen bonded hexamers,
one chair-form (above left) and one almost flat (above
right). Two molecules (center bottom in the above
diagram) are shown closely approaching (3.23 Å)
but they are not hydrogen bonded. The rhombohedral
crystal has unit cell dimensions 7.78 Å (a,
b, c; 113.1°, 113.1°, 113.1°, 12 mols)
containing 12 water molecules. It may be easier to
visualize the crystal as hexagonal, each unit cell
containing 36 water molecules (as shown opposite,
with dimensions a, b, c; 12.935 Å, 12.935 Å,
6.233 Å; 225 K. 0.25 GPa, ). The hexagonal channels (as indicated gray above) form columns of alternating
puckered and flat rings going away from the viewer, and remain from the conversion from hexagonal ice with the conservation of their hydrogen bonds (3/4 of the total).
A further 1/3 of the bonds between these channels (1/12 of the total number) are also conserved. The formation of the newly rearranged remaining 1/6 hydrogen bonds found between these channels cause the proton order in ice-two
Opposite shows the view almost perpendicular to the c axis, showing the hydrogen bonding between these hexagonal channels. Single crystals of hexagonal ice may transform into single crystals of ice-two or into crystalline twins of ice two with c axes rotated by 180° with respect to each other . Up to 7/12 of all hydrogen bonds are retained on the irreversible cooperative ice-two → cubic ice transition .
Ice-two has triple points with hexagonal ice
and ice-three (-34.7 °C, 212.9 MPa), ice-three and ice-five
(-24.3 °C, 344.3 MPa) and ice-five, ice-eleven and ice Ih (-199.8 °C, 70 MPa),and ice-six (estimated
at -55 °C, 620 MPa). The relative permittivity (dielectric constant) of ice-two
is about 3.7 .
Interactive Jmol structures are given.